Capture and Reuse of Project Knowledge in Construction in VS .NET

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Capture and Reuse of Project Knowledge in Construction
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Personal KM capability Personal KM capability refers to the capability of employees to capture and share knowledge, and use the IT-based KM system for the purpose This capability can greatly in uence the ef ciency of knowledge capture and reuse practices, particularly when IT-based KM systems are used However, it is argued that personal KM capability is something which people can improve over time, assisted by appropriate training Staff mobility and turnover Change in the membership of a project team during the course of a project and high staff turnover often result in organisational knowledge fragmentation and loss of organisational learning (Kasvi et al, 2003) Reducing frequent change in project team membership, and the retention of members of staff is therefore crucial in preventing such knowledge gaps from developing (Harman and Brelade, 2000)
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342 Organisational issues
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Both inter- and intra-organisational knowledge sharing are affected by issues such as commercial sensitivity of the knowledge, existence of rewards to encourage knowledge sharing and other management issues The details of the main issues are as follows: Commercial sensitivity and security of knowledge Commercial sensitivity and security of knowledge is critical for interorganisational knowledge sharing (Barson et al, 2000) The corporate security restrictions imposed on the posting of information/knowledge (Ardichvili et al, 2003) may indirectly discourage people from sharing their knowledge where the boundary of such restrictions is not made clear Creation of a reward and incentive structure Current literature suggests that the impacts of incentives on knowledge capture and reuse are two-sided From one perspective, incentives and rewards have been identi ed as the key success factor in the knowledge sharing process (Hansen et al, 1999; Eppler and Sukowski, 2000; Hall et al, 2000; Robinson et al, 2001), in sustaining a knowledge sharing culture (O Dell et al, 1998; Neve, 2003) and in encouraging people to engage in knowledge-based roles, activities and processes (Zack, 1999) From another perspective, an ill-designed system and/or the lack of an incentive structure can also act as disincentives and lead to knowledge hoarding
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Reusable project knowledge generation and capture
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(Hall et al, 2000) The dominating outcome-oriented approach where one s reward is judged from the amount of work done on the codi cation and dissemination of knowledge (Hall et al, 2000) is very individualbased and does not encourage collaborative behaviour (Walsham, 2001) Therefore, the more balanced scorecard incentive system suggested by Goh (2002) whereby both collaboration with other teams and sharing of knowledge are taken into account to avoid internal competition is likely to be a better option Allocation of resources Hall et al (2000) argue that con icts exist as the strategic bene ts from knowledge transfer are accrued by the organisation as a whole, but the tactical cost for the resources (budget and staff time) associated with knowledge capture is borne by the individual projects Consequently, knowledge capture and sharing may be sacri ced particularly when the risk of project cost overrun is greater than the risks associated with the loss of organisational knowledge (Hall et al, 2000) It is therefore suggested that the cost incurred is treated as overhead expenses for the organisation to solve this problem (Hall et al, 2000) Company policy towards lessons learned Knowledge sharing should both cover the best practices learned and the mistakes made (ie lessons learned) However, people are reluctant to admit mistakes (De Long, 1997) and the organisation s disciplinary procedures further discourage the sharing of this kind of knowledge (Hall et al, 2000) Heisig et al (2001) suggest that organisations should recognise that errors are an essential factor in the process of learning and should hence maintain a culture of errors where making errors are tolerated to an extent to encourage the sharing of lessons learned
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