The Bolsheviks Consolidate Power in .NET

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The Bolsheviks Consolidate Power
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The Bolsheviks advocated the overthrow of the monarchy and the creation of a communist regime Their popular support was narrow compared with other Russian parties and the large socialist movements of western Europe
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Nonetheless, by decisive and ruthless tactics, the Bolsheviks managed to establish a totalitarian government, which they maintained by a campaign of terror The leader of the Bolsheviks, Vladimir Lenin, was an intellectual with a relentless drive for power, who became the architect of the communist state He was tactically astute, molding the Bolshevik party into a disciplined group that successfully seized control at the critical hour To achieve power, Lenin summarily crushed all opposition In Europe, he had become a disciple of Karl Marx, the German philosopher whose in uential tract Das Kapital (1876) denounced capitalism as inequitable, exploitative of the working class, and a source of the disintegration of society and economy Marx proposed a new order based on his communist principles, of which Lenin became Russia s standard-bearer In 1918, the new Bolshevik government concluded a peace treaty with the Central Powers, ceding much Russian territory After the war, these areas were reclaimed from a defeated Germany, but the new regime became involved in a civil war against monarchist leaders of the Russian military Former imperial territories inhabited by the Ukrainians, Georgians, and Uzbeks declared themselves independent republics The Bolsheviks, however, taking advantage of defections from the czarist of cer corps, created the Red Army, a successful ghting force that had defeated the monarchists and subdued breakaway territories by 1921 In 1923, the new rulers formed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), a multinational federation of former imperial regions, of which Russia was the largest republic The Bolshevik s austerity program, implemented from 1917 to 1921, left the country with severe shortages of food and consumer goods To alleviate the crisis, the new rulers introduced the short-lived New Economic Policy (NEP) in 1922, which allowed agriculture and small enterprise to remain private The resulting economic relief led to a period of stability in which the arts and culture, dormant during the war, experienced a revival
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Stalin: Collectivization and the Great Terror
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Following the death of Lenin in 1924, Joseph Stalin assumed leadership of the Bolshevik party Stalin had been imprisoned by the czarist state and later joined the Bolsheviks, where he proved his organizational genius by a rapid rise to power He built up a cadre of loyalists and ruthlessly outmaneuvered rivals, many of whom were imprisoned, exiled, or assassinated as he created a cult of a personality around his leadership image He consolidated dictatorial control through the secret police, which reached deep into Soviet society His regime saw the most extensive control of the economy by the state in Russia s history In pursuit of industrial and military parity with the
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West, the communist government took ownership of all manufacturing and nancial assets and regulated all commercial transactions The well-to-do peasants of this era, called kulaks, whose existence was irreconcilable with communist dogma, naturally became the targets of ruthless persecution The government expropriated their land and crops in the mass collectivization of 1933 to 1938, causing millions to perish from famine and forced resettlement Accompanying this state violence was a wide political crackdown on suspected opponents of the regime Thousands of army of cers, professionals, and artists were imprisoned, tried by mock tribunals, executed or exiled to the gulag, a vast network of forced labor camps in Siberia
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World War II
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By the mid-1930s, most Western nations, including the United States, had diplomatically recognized the USSR In an attempt to protect the country s western ank, in 1939 Stalin entered into a nonaggression pact with Nazi Germany, by then a resurgent military power In November 1939, the Soviet Union invaded neighboring Finland, resulting in a quasi-colonial status of the latter In an action condemned but not actively opposed by Western nations, the USSR occupied the sovereign Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania in June 1940 Hostilities commenced when German armies invaded the western border of the USSR in June 1941 and drove the Red Army, in full retreat, deep into Soviet territory As Germany advanced into Ukraine and Belorussia, Stalin ordered that the industrial plants be relocated eastward so that they would not fall into German hands Soviet casualties from combat and privation reached staggering proportions The Germans laid siege to Leningrad (today St Petersburg), the former capital of 25 million inhabitants, where nearly a third perished from starvation during World War II The German offensive was halted at several major encounters In December 1941, they were prevented from taking Moscow, the capital of 4 million, by special Red Army winter-trained divisions At Stalingrad (now Volgograd) on the river Volga in October 1942, Soviet forces held the city after months of deadly street combat, blocking the path to the oil-rich southern provinces coveted by the invaders In July 1943 at Kursk, in the black-earth plain of central Russia, the largest tank battle in history turned the tide against the Germans The Red Army s tactics took advantage of the overextended German lines over vast territory, the severe Russian winters, and the Soviet superiority in manpower The German retreat opened the way for the Soviet occupation of Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and the eastern provinces of Germany, including the eastern part of Berlin
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