RESTful Primer in Java

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a comment is available in only a single language Further, automatic translators lack the ability to reliably convert to other languages with any level of quality However, HTTP provides a method for specifying languages as well
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HTTP and the Uniform Interface
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One of the key constraints of REST is the uniform interface The goal of the uniform interface is to make the interaction between components as simple to understand as possible This means that components should use the same methods to communicate between each other Resources and their addresses are part of this uniformity The uniformity of component interaction is the fixed set of operations that can be performed on resources HTTP provides a small set of methods to enable simpler APIs along with gateway and caching servers
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HTTP Methods
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The HTTP methods are the verbs for the uniform interface You use them to communicate your needs against resources The methods in HTTP are GET, POST, PUT, DELETE, HEAD, OPTIONS, TRACE, and CONNECT For the purposes of RESTful interfaces, we ll pay attention primarily to the first four methods OPTIONS and HEAD come into play in special cases, while TRACE and CONNECT don t concern our services designs Before we dig into the specifics of each method, it s worth mentioning two concepts that are important to HTTP and services design: safe and idempotent methods
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Safe and Idempotent Methods
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Safe methods are those that do not request any server-side effects That is, they are methods that only request information They do not modify resources in any way GET and HEAD methods are considered safe This means that programs such as web crawlers can perform GET and HEAD operations without concern for what may happen on the server An example is following hyperlinks on a page Because POST is not considered a safe operation, well-behaved crawlers do not submit HTML forms Idempotent methods are those that can be replayed any number of times without a change from the first one In more mathematical terms, these are methods for which the result of running them N 0 times will always be the same GET, HEAD, PUT, and DELETE are idempotent GET and HEAD are idempotent because they have no side effects PUT is idempotent because putting the same resource at the same URI again
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results in no change from the first time the PUT was run DELETE is idempotent because once a resource is deleted, deleting it again doesn t have any effect
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The GET method is a read request for a specific resource It retrieves information, which is identified by the URI This could be a request that simply returns a static asset from disk (such as an image or a regular HTML file), or it could be a request that requires processing to return the result (for example, a search results page) So the GET method does literally what it says: It gets a resource Further, it should produce no side effects So it s safe and idempotent
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POST
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At its most basic level, a POST is appended to an existing resource It is a request that includes an entity (some data) that the server should accept It can be used to annotate an existing resource (such as adding a comment to a list of comments), appending data, or simply providing data to some backend process Rails applications commonly use POST as a create or insert for a record This is very much like an append to a collection Consider comments from the social feed reader application, for example A POST to /comments would create a new comment Thus, the request can be viewed as an append to the collection of comments Further, it assigns an ID and creates a whole new resource at /comments/:id One final thing about POST is that it is neither safe nor idempotent Running POST multiple times results in multiple resources being created In some cases, you might want to take more care in creating a resource on a POST This could be a way to hack around the fact that POST is not idempotent In the earlier comments example, before doing an insert, you could check the database first to see if the comment body is the same as the last comment posted by the user Of course, that s beyond the realm of what HTTP cares about It doesn t specify exactly what the server-side behavior should be
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The PUT method places a resource at a specific URI The request includes data and specifies that the server should store that data under the request URI If there is already a resource at that URI, the data should be viewed as a modified version of the
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