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In 5, Managed Heap and Garbage Collection, we took a close look at the internals of the managed heap and garbage collector (GC) We extensively utilized the SOS debugger commands to gain insight into how the GC works and what information we can use to troubleshoot difficult application problems With CLR 40, the SOS debugger extension has been extended to include a new set of commands that further aid in troubleshooting application problems related to the GC In this section, we will take a look at these new commands and how they can be used
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VerifyObj
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The first command of interest is the VerifyObj command, which has the following syntax:
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!VerifyObj <object address>
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The command takes an object address and checks the object for possible signs of corruption The algorithm used to detect corruption is primarily in the area of making sure that the method table is intact both with the actual object and any contained objects If you suspect that a heap corruption is rearing its head, the output of this command can serve as a quick indicator Here is an example of a corrupt object and the output of the VerifyObj command:
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0:000> !VerifyObj 0x02126804 object 0x2126804 does not have valid method table
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FindRoots
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Finding the reason why an object has not yet been collected can be a tedious process Objects that have simple roots are relatively straightforward, but at times, an object s root can be less than straightforward to spot For example, if an object has a crossgenerational reference to it and the referencing generation has not yet been collected, the object will still appear to be live and well To make life easier when detecting these cross-generational references, the FindRoots command can be used:
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!FindRoots -gen <N> | -gen any | <object address>
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The FindRoots command instructs the runtime to set a breakpoint the next time a garbage collection occurs in the specified generation (using the gen <N> switch) or anytime a garbage collection occurs regardless of the generation (using the gen any switch) After the breakpoint hits, the FindRoots command can be fed an object s address to display the roots for the object The first step in the process is typically finding the generation that the object belongs to by using the GCWhere command:
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0:003> !GCWhere 00b08580 Address Gen Heap segment 00b0b400 0 0 00b00000 begin 00b01000 allocated 00b0c010 size 0xc(12)
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The output shows that the object at address 0x00b08580 belongs to generation 0 Next, we use the FindRoots command to break on the next garbage collection that occurs in the generation and resume execution:
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0:003> !FindRoots -gen any 0:003> g (710970): CLR notification exception - code e0444143 (first chance) CLR notification: GC - Performing a gen 2 collection Determined surviving
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objects First chance exceptions are reported before any exception handling This exception may be expected and handled eax=0013f118 ebx=00000000 ecx=00000000 edx=00000006 esi=0013f1dc edi=00000003 eip=7c812afb esp=0013f114 ebp=0013f168 iopl=0 nv up ei pl nz na pe nc cs=001b ss=0023 ds=0023 es=0023 fs=003b gs=0000 efl=00000206 KERNEL32!RaiseException+0x53: 7c812afb 5e pop esi
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After the breakpoint is hit, we can use the FindRoots command with the object s address to find out the roots of the object:
0:000> !FindRoots 00b0b400 Scan Thread 0 OSTHread 970 ESP:13fac8:Root: 01b01010(SystemObject[])-> 00b0ab38(SystemCollectionsHashtable)-> 00b0ab70(SystemCollectionsHashtable+bucket[])-> 00b0b400(SystemInt32) Scan Thread 2 OSTHread acc DOMAIN(0016CB98):HANDLE(Pinned):9713fc:Root: 01b01010(SystemObject[])-> 00b0ab38(SystemCollectionsHashtable)-> 00b0ab70(SystemCollectionsHashtable+bucket[])-> 00b0b400(SystemInt32)
HeapStat
The HeapStat command shows a nice and detailed breakdown of the used and free bytes for each generation on each managed heap Additionally, it provides a summary view showing free versus used memory (as a percentage) on the small object heap (SOH) and large object heap (LOH) The syntax of the command is
!HeapStat [-inclUnrooted | -iu]
The default output shows all rooted objects The inclUnrooted (or iu shortcut) switch can be used to include all rooted as well as unrooted objects Here is an example of running the HeapStat command on the 05OOMexe application:
0:004> !HeapStat Heap Gen0 Gen1 Heap0 2166844 134200 Free space Heap0 1865804 Gen2 159064 LOH 33328 Percentage SOH: 75% LOH: