Sequences in Java

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7 Sequences
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var sortedInts:Integer[] = Sequencessort(ints) as Integer[]; println("Sorted ints: {sortedIntstoString()}"); println("ints after sort: {intstoString()}");
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The result is as follows:
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Sorted ints: [ 1, 23, 44, 88, 99 ] ints after sort: [ 99, 88, 1, 23, 44 ]
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Notice the cast on the line of code that performs the sort:
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var sortedInts:Integer[] = Sequencessort(ints) as Integer[];
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The variant of the sort() function used here accepts and returns a sequence of objectsTo assign this to an Integer sequence variable, an explicit cast is necessary The same thing can be done with a sequence of strings:
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Comparable var strs = ["Abcd", "A", "AA", "ZZ", "Z"]; var sortedStrs:String[] = Sequencessort(strs) as String[]; println("Sorted strings: {sortedStrstoString()}"); println("strings after sort: {strstoString()}");
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This code produces the following output:
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Sorted strings: [ A, AA, Abcd, Z, ZZ ] strings after sort: [ Abcd, A, AA, ZZ, Z ]
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Comparator
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To demonstrate the second variant of this function, we ll use the string length shown in the previous section to sort the same sequence of strings by length:
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var strs = ["Abcd", "A", "AA", "ZZ", "Z"]; var sortedStrs:String[] = Sequencessort(strs, comp) as String[]; println("Sorted strings: {sortedStrstoString()}");
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Because the Comparator used here orders the strings by length, the resulting sequence has the shortest string first and the longest last
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Sorted strings: [ A, Z, AA, ZZ, Abcd ]
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Searching and Updating a Sorted Sequence
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If you know that a sequence is sorted in ascending order, you can use the binarySearch() functions to look for a given elementThese functions have two advantages over the indexOf() function that you saw earlier:
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They are much faster at searching a large sequence because they use a binary chop algorithm to locate the required element, exploiting the fact that the sequence is known to be in ascending order
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Operations on Sequences
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If the element is not in the sequence, they return a value that indicates where the element should be inserted to preserve the ordering
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Here is how the binarySearch() functions are defined:
public function binarySearch(seq: Comparable[], key: Comparable): Integer public function binarySearch(seq: Object[], key: Object, c: Comparator): Integer
The first variant assumes that the sequence is sorted according to the natural ordering of its elements, while the second requires that it be sorted according to the rules applied by the given Comparator If this is not the case, then the results are undefined (which is almost certainly not what you wanted) Here is an example that looks for the value 44 in a sorted sequence of Integers:
var sortedInts = [ 1, 23, 44, 88, 99 ]; var intIndex = SequencesbinarySearch(sortedInts, 44); println("Sorted ints: {sortedIntstoString()}, 44 is at index {intIndex}");
This gives the following:
Sorted ints: [ 1, 23, 44, 88, 99 ], 44 is at index 2
What happens if the required element is not present This example looks for the value in the same sequence:
intIndex = SequencesbinarySearch(sortedInts, 55); println("Sorted ints: {sortedIntstoString()}, 55 is at index {intIndex}");
The result is a negative value:
Sorted ints: [ 1, 23, 44, 88, 99 ], 55 is at index -4
A negative value indicates that the element was not already in the sequence More than that, though, it tells us where the element should be inserted If the return value is x, the element should be inserted at the index (-x - 1)The reason for the -1 is so that an index of zero becomes -1 instead of -0, which is indistinguishable from zeroWith this knowledge, we can insert the 55 in the correct location in the sequence to preserve the ordering:
var insertIndex = -intIndex - 1; insert 55 before sortedInts[insertIndex]; println("Sorted ints after insert: {sortedIntstoString()}");
The result of running this code is as follows:
Sorted ints after insert: [ 1, 23, 44, 55, 88, 99 ]
As you can see, the sequence is still properly ordered
7 Sequences
Shuffling a Sequence
In some circumstances, you need to randomly reorder the elements of a sequenceYou might do this, for example, if you are writing a card game and you want to shuffle the virtual deckThe Sequences class provides the following function that enables you to do this in one line of code:
public function shuffle(seq: Object[]):Object[]
Here s an example that shuffles a sequence of Integers three times Note that, as with all the other functions in this class, the result of the shuffle() function is a new sequence the original is unchanged:
var ints = [99, 88, 1, 23, 44]; var shuffledInts:Integer[] = Sequencesshuffle(ints) as Integer[]; println("First shuffle: {shuffledIntstoString()}"); shuffledInts = Sequencesshuffle(ints) as Integer[]; println("Second shuffle: {shuffledIntstoString()}"); shuffledInts = Sequencesshuffle(ints) as Integer[]; println("Third shuffle: {shuffledIntstoString()}");
The results that you get will, of course, vary over time Here s the output that I got when I ran this code:
First shuffle: [ 44, 88, 99, 1, 23 ] Second shuffle: [ 23, 99, 1, 44, 88 ] Third shuffle: [ 23, 88, 99, 44, 1 ]