LE2 Basic Leasing Interfaces in Java

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LE2 Basic Leasing Interfaces
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O'Reilly Network Safari Bookshelf Jini Specifications, The, Second Edition The RemoteException is imported from the package javarmi This exception is used to indicate a problem with any communication that might occur between the lease holder and the lease grantor if those objects are in separate virtual machines The full specification of this exception can be found in the Java Remote Method Invocation Specification The UnknownLeaseException is used to indicate that the Lease object used is not known to the grantor of the lease This can occur when a lease expires or when a copy of a lease has been cancelled by some other lease holder This exception is defined as:
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package netjinicorelease; public class UnknownLeaseException extends LeaseException { public UnknownLeaseException() { super(); } public UnknownLeaseException(String reason) { super(reason); } }
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The final exception defined is the LeaseDeniedException, which can be thrown by either a call to renew or a call to an interface that grants access to a leased resource This exception indicates that the requested lease has been denied by the resource holder The exception is defined as:
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package netjinicorelease; public class LeaseDeniedException extends LeaseException { public LeaseDeniedException() { super(); } public LeaseDeniedException(String reason) { super(reason); } }
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The LeaseException superclass is defined as:
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package netjinicorelease; public class LeaseException extends Exception { public LeaseException() { super(); } public LeaseException(String reason) { super(reason); } }
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The final basic interface defined for leasing is that of a LeaseMap, which allows groups of Lease objects to be renewed or cancelled by a single operation The LeaseMap interface is:
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package netjinicorelease; import javarmiRemoteException; public interface LeaseMap extends javautilMap { boolean canContainKey(Object key); void renewAll() throws LeaseMapException, RemoteException; void cancelAll() throws LeaseMapException,RemoteException; }
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A LeaseMap is an extension of the javautilMap interface that associates a Lease object with a Long The Long is the duration for which the lease should be renewed whenever it is renewed Lease objects and associated renewal durations can be entered and removed from a LeaseMap by the usual Map methods An attempt to add a Lease object to a map containing other Lease objects for which LeasecanBatch would return false will cause an IllegalArgumentException to be LE2 Basic Leasing Interfaces 97
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O'Reilly Network Safari Bookshelf Jini Specifications, The, Second Edition thrown, as will attempts to add a key that is not a Lease object or a value that is not a Long The first method defined in the LeaseMap interface, canContainKey, takes a Lease object as an argument and returns true if that Lease object can be added to the Map and false otherwise A Lease object can be added to a Map if that Lease object can be renewed in a batch with the other objects in the LeaseMap The requirements for this depend on the implementation of the Lease object However, if a LeaseMap object, m, contains a Lease object, n, then for some Lease object o, ncanBatch(o) returns true if and only if mcanContainKey(o) returns true The second method, renewAll, will attempt to renew all of the Lease objects in the LeaseMap for the duration associated with the Lease object If all of the Lease objects are successfully renewed, the method will return nothing If some Lease objects fail to renew, those objects will be removed from the LeaseMap and will be contained in the thrown LeaseMapException The third method, cancelAll, cancels all the Lease objects in the LeaseMap If all cancels are successful, the method returns normally and leaves all leases in the map If any of the Lease objects cannot be cancelled, they are removed from the LeaseMap and the operation throws a LeaseMapException The LeaseMapException class is defined as:
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package netjinicorelease; import javautilMap; public class LeaseMapException extends LeaseException { public Map exceptionMap; public LeaseMapException(String s, Map exceptionMap) { super(s); thisexceptionMap = exceptionMap; } }
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Objects of type LeaseMapException contain a Map object that maps Lease objects (the keys) to Exception objects (the values) The Lease objects are the ones that could not be renewed or cancelled, and the Exception objects reflect the individual failures For example, if a LeaseMaprenew call fails because one of the leases has already expired, that lease would be taken out of the original LeaseMap and placed in the Map returned as part of the LeaseMapException object with an UnknownLeaseException object as the corresponding value LE23 Leasing and Time The duration of a lease is determined when the lease is granted (or renewed) A lease is granted for a duration rather than until some particular moment of time, since such a grant does not require that the clocks used by the client and the server be synchronized The difficulty of synchronizing clocks in a distributed system is well known The problem is somewhat more tractable in the case of leases, which are expected to be for periods of minutes to months, as the accuracy of synchronization required is expected to be in terms of minutes rather than nanoseconds Over a particular local group of machines, a time service could be used that would allow this level of synchronization However, leasing is expected to be used by clients and servers that are widely distributed and might not share a particular time service In such a case, clock drift of many minutes is a common occurrence Because of this, the leasing specification has chosen to use durations rather than absolute time The reasoning behind such a choice is based on the observation that the accuracy of the clocks used in the machines that make up a distributed system is matched much more closely than the clocks on those systems While there may be minutes of difference in the notion of the absolute time held by widely separated systems, there is much less likelihood of a significant difference over the rate of change of LE2 Basic Leasing Interfaces 98
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O'Reilly Network Safari Bookshelf Jini Specifications, The, Second Edition time in those systems While there is clearly some difference in the notion of duration between systems (if there were not, synchronization for absolute time would be much easier), that difference is not cumulative in the way errors in absolute time are This decision does mean that holders of leases and grantors of leases need to be aware of some of the consequences of the use of durations In particular, the amount of time needed to communicate between the lease holder and the lease grantor, which may vary from call to call, needs to be taken into account when renewing a lease If a lease holder is calculating the absolute time (relative to the lease holder's clock) at which to ask for a renewal, that time should be based on the sum of the duration of the lease plus the time at which the lease holder requested the lease, not on the duration plus the time at which the lease holder received the lease LE24 Serialized Forms
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