Portability MySQL and Ingres don't support CAST The gain shown is for only six DBMSs in Java

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Portability MySQL and Ingres don't support CAST The gain shown is for only six DBMSs
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Precision will also be slightly better if you say SUM(x + y) instead of SUM(x) + SUM(y) because the total number of additions will be smaller On the other hand, precision is better if you say
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SUM(x) SUM(y) instead of SUM(x y) because the total number of subtractions will be
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smaller You can also have a problem with SUM for example, SUM(column1) if column1 is an INTEGER This time it isn't a problem with precision (in fact, a precision loss never occurs if you use exact numeric data types) The problem goes like this:
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INSERT INTO Table1 VALUES (2000000000) INSERT INTO Table1 VALUES (2000000000) SELECT SUM(column1) FROM Table1
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/* 2 billion */ /* 2 billion */ /* 4 billion error */
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Four DBMSs Ingres, InterBase, Microsoft, and Sybase return an "overflow" error in such a case Once again, you can avoid the problem by using CAST:
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SELECT SUM(CAST(column1 AS BIGINT)) FROM Table1 /* if BIGINT is legal */ SELECT SUM(CAST(column1 AS DECIMAL(10))) FROM Table1 /* if you prefer standard SQL */
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Similar considerations apply if you want to pick your own precision for AVG functions, rather than depending on the arbitrary precision that the DBMS picks Some DBMSs add a few positions (usually three or more) after the decimal point so if, for example, column1 is defined as DECIMAL(5,3) the result of AVG(column1) is at least DECIMAL(8,6) Other DBMSs (eg, IBM and Informix) return a FLOAT result
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Reports frequently include both detail and summary information That's what the CUBE and ROLLUP keywords are for You should use GROUP BY CUBE () or GROUP BY ROLLUP () if you want detail/summary reports if your DBMS supports this new SQL:1999 feature If it doesn't, you can get multiple levels by UNIONing the detail rows with the summary rows, like this:
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SELECT column1 AS col1, SUM(column2) FROM Table1 WHERE column1 IS NOT NULL GROUP BY column1 UNION ALL SELECT 'Total' AS col1, SUM(column2) FROM Table1 ORDER BY col1
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Portability MySQL doesn't support UNION All other DBMSs can do this, but you should use CUBE/ROLLUP with IBM, Microsoft, and Oracle
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You can achieve the same effect with a subquery for example, SELECT FROM (SELECT) but if your DBMS will support the table subqueries enhancement, then it will probably support CUBE and ROLLUP too A similar trick is useful if you want to treat each occurrence of NULL as a distinct value
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Fast MAX
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An ideal way to compute the MAX aggregate function is described in AK Dewdney's article "On the spaghetti computer and other analog gadgets for problem solving" (Scientific American, June 1984, page 19) The article suggests that, for each numeric value in the set that you want to sort, you cut a strand of uncooked spaghetti to a length matching the value Hold all the strands together loosely in your fist, and rap them on a horizontal surface Instantly the longest strand will be apparent Measure it Unfortunately, only the MAX is visible not the MIN, SUM, AVG, or COUNT of the set This illustrates that if you design the system for a specific query, you can get fantastic results and make every other query slower
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Expressions
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Here are three SQL statements Feel free to show off by guessing which one is illegal according to SQL Standard rules
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Statement #1 SELECT MAX(LOWER(column1)) FROM Table1 GROUP BY column1 Statement #2 SELECT LOWER(column1) FROM Table1 GROUP BY LOWER(column1) /* Hint: this one! */ Statement #3 SELECT column1 FROM Table1 GROUP BY column1 COLLATE SQL_Latin1_General
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Doubtless you correctly guessed that Statement #2 is illegal because GROUP BY columns can't be in expressions except COLLATE expressions Unfortunately, many DBMSs won't support COLLATE, so they have to support other kinds of expressions, such as LOWER After all, it's frequently necessary to have some choice over how the DBMS decides what's a duplicate and what's not Do remember, though, that GROUP BY is evaluated before the production of the select-list columns, so you can't do this:
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