: Printing and Prompting in .NET framework

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Example: Printing and Prompting
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The ConsolePrompt function, which appears in Program 2-1, is a useful utility that prompts the user with a specified message and then returns the user's response There is an option to suppress the response echo The function uses the console I/O functions and generic characters PrintStrings and PrintMsg are the other entries in this module; they can use any handle but are normally used with standard output or error handles The first function allows a variable-length argument list, whereas the second one allows just one string and is for convenience only PrintStrings uses the va_start, va_arg, and va_end functions in the Standard C library to process the variable-length argument list Example programs will use these functions and the generic C library functions as convenient Note: The code on the book's Web site is thoroughly commented and documented Within the book, most of the comments are omitted for brevity and to concentrate on Windows usage This example also introduces an include file developed for the programs in the book The file, Envirmnt h (listed in Appendix A and provided on the Web site), contains the UNICODE and _UNICODE definitions (the definitions are commented out; remove the comment characters to build a Unicode application) and related preprocessor variables to specify the environment The header files on the Web site also define additional modifiers to import or export the function names and to assure that the functions use the proper calling conventions
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Program 2-1 PrintMsg: Console Prompt and Print Utility Functions
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/* PrintMsgc: ConsolePrompt, PrintStrings, PrintMsg */ #include "Envirmnth" /* #define or #undef UNICODE here */ #include <windowsh> #include <stdargh> BOOL PrintStrings (HANDLE hOut, ) /* Write the messages to the output handle */ { DWORD MsgLen, Count; LPCTSTR pMsg; va_list pMsgList; /* Current message string */ va_start (pMsgList, hOut); /* Start processing messages */ while ((pMsg = va_arg (pMsgList, LPCTSTR)) != NULL) { MsgLen = _tcslen (pMsg); /* WriteConsole succeeds only for console handles */ if (!WriteConsole (hOut, pMsg, MsgLen, &Count, NULL) /* Call WriteFile only if WriteConsole fails */ && !WriteFile (hOut, pMsg, MsgLen * sizeof (TCHAR), &Count, NULL)) return FALSE; } va_end (pMsgList); return TRUE; } BOOL PrintMsg (HANDLE hOut, LPCTSTR pMsg) /* Single message version of PrintStrings */ {
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return PrintStrings (hOut, pMsg, NULL); } BOOL ConsolePrompt (LPCTSTR pPromptMsg, LPTSTR pResponse, DWORD MaxTchar, BOOL Echo) /* Prompt the user at the console and get a response */ { HANDLE hStdIn, hStdOut; DWORD TcharIn, EchoFlag; BOOL Success; hStdIn = CreateFile (_T ("CONIN$"), GENERIC_READ | GENERIC_WRITE, 0, NULL, OPEN_ALWAYS, FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL, NULL); hStdOut = CreateFile (_T ("CONOUT$"), GENERIC_WRITE, 0, NULL, OPEN_ALWAYS, FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL, NULL); EchoFlag = Echo ENABLE_ECHO_INPUT : 0; Success = SetConsoleMode (hStdIn, ENABLE_LINE_INPUT | EchoFlag | ENABLE_PROCESSED_INPUT) && SetConsoleMode (hStdOut, ENABLE_WRAP_AT_EOL_OUTPUT | ENABLE_PROCESSED_OUTPUT) && PrintStrings (hStdOut, pPromptMsg, NULL) && ReadConsole (hStdIn, pResponse, MaxTchar, &TcharIn, NULL); if (Success) pResponse [TcharIn - 2] = '\0'; CloseHandle (hStdIn); CloseHandle (hStdOut); return Success; }
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Notice that ConsolePrompt returns a Boolean success indicator, exploiting ANSI C's guaranteed left-toright "short circuit" evaluation of logical "and" operators (&&) where evaluation stops on encountering the first FALSE This coding style may appear compact, but it has the advantage of presenting the system calls in a clear, sequential order without the clutter of numerous conditional statements Furthermore, GetLastError will return the error from the function that failed Windows' Boolean return values (for many functions) encourage the technique The function does not report an error; the calling program can do this if necessary The code exploits the documented fact that WriteConsole fails if the handle is redirected to something other than a console handle Therefore, it is not necessary to interrogate the handle properties The function will take advantage of the console mode when the handle is attached to a console Also, ReadConsole returns a carriage return and line feed, so the last step is to insert a null character in the proper location over the carriage return
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