Figure 188 Fully connected federation structure with uniform names in Software

Drawing Code39 in Software Figure 188 Fully connected federation structure with uniform names
Figure 188 Fully connected federation structure with uniform names
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With the configuration in Figure 188, each server's initial naming context contains a binding named with that server's location In addition, each server contains bindings to its
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neighbors that are labeled with the neighbors' locations The net effect is that the same name denotes the same object, regardless of which initial naming context is used Such a fully connected federation structure has the advantage that it provides uniform names to all clients The major drawback is that it is difficult to administer: every time you add a new server, you must update all other servers in the federation If there are more than five or so servers, maintenance becomes difficult because the number of crosslinks at the top level grows as O(n2) 18132 Hierarchical Federation Structure An alternative to a fully connected federation is to put servers into a hierarchical structure, as shown in Figure 189 A hierarchical structure is easier to maintain because you need to add only two bindings when you add a new server to the federation regardless of how many servers already exist in the federation
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Figure 189 Hierarchical naming structure
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In such a hierarchical structure, clients can still use the same name to denote the same object everywhere However, clients must resolve names via the initial naming context of the root server and not via the initial naming context of their local server This requirement can create a scalability problem because in a large federation, the root server can become a performance bottleneck Hierarchical structures are also less resilient to failure than fully connected structures: if the root server fails, clients can no longer resolve names There is also the question of how clients get the initial naming context of the root server In Figure 189, we have added parent bindings to the initial naming context of each
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regional server Clients can use this binding to locate the root and then use root-relative names for all objects Despite their slightly worse reliability and performance, hierarchical federation structures are used more often than fully connected structures In part, this stems from the fact that hierarchical structures do not suffer the maintenance problems of fully connected structures In addition, many real-world naming systems are naturally hierarchical Telephone numbers are a classic example of hierarchical naming You can model naming in such a hierarchy by installing naming servers at each level of the hierarchy, as shown in Figure 1810 We show a path through the hierarchy corresponding to the number 1-999-123-4567
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Figure 1810 Hierarchical structure modeling telephone exchanges
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In such a structure, each server's initial naming context also contains a parent binding up to the initial naming context of the next-higher server We use doubleheaded arrows to show these bindings in Figure 1810 In the downward direction, each binding is labeled with a number, whereas in the upward direction, each binding has the label parent When a subscriber dials a local number, the client uses the initial naming context of its local server to resolve it If the number is not local, the client navigates via the parent bindings up to the server at the appropriate level and then uses the initial naming context of that server to resolve the number The advantage of this arrangement is that local calls cause activity only in local servers, and only non-local calls involve servers higher up in the hierarchy This improves both performance and fault tolerance Servers at higher levels in the hierarchy are less likely to form a performance bottleneck, and failure of a high-level server does not prevent resolving of bindings for local calls 18133 Hybrid Structures There is nothing to prevent you from arranging federated servers into topologies other than fully connected or tree structures In fact, any arrangement of servers is allowed (you even can include loops in the federation structure) This flexibility is a major advantage
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