Widening Extraction of References in Software

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Widening Extraction of References
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Extraction of object references requires a precise type code match For example, the following extraction will fail:
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CORBA::Any a; CCS::Thermostat_var tmstat = ; a <<= tmstat; CCS::Thermometer_ptr therm_p; CORBA::Boolean = (a >>= therm_p); false assert(ok); // Get a thermostat // Insert thermostat // Thermometer reference // Extraction returns // Assertion fails
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This code inserts a thermostat reference and then attempts to extract it as a reference to a thermometer, which is a base type However, it does not work The extraction operator returns zero because the type code inside the Any does not match the type of the extracted reference If you want to use widening extraction of references from an Any, you must use the to_object helper type:
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CORBA::Any a; CCS::Thermostat_var tmstat = ; a <<= tmstat; CORBA::Object_var obj; a >>= CORBA::Any::to_object(obj); // Get a thermostat // Insert thermostat // Extract as Object
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CCS::Thermometer_var therm; // Thermometer reference therm = CCS::Thermometer::_narrow(obj); // Narrow to Thermometer
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Extraction into the to_object helper type succeeds if the Any contains a reference of any type The extracted reference is always of type Object In addition, you must release references extracted with to_object The preceding code does this by extracting directly into a _var reference Note that memory management for to_object differs from that of non-widening extraction, in which the Any retains ownership of the extracted reference[4]
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[4] The memory management rules for Any were changed with CORBA 23 For CORBA 22 (and earlier) ORBs, the Any retains ownership of the extracted reference This means that you must not release the extracted reference for CORBA 22 and earlier
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After you have extracted a reference as type Object from an Any, you must call the appropriate _narrow function to down-cast the reference to the required type as usual 1539 Inserting and Extracting Any The value inside an Any can itself be an Any For example:
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CORBA::Any outer;
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CORBA::Any inner; inner <<= (CORBA::Long)5; outer <<= inner;
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// Insert 5 into inner // Insert inner into outer
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There is nothing special about inserting an Any into another Any The type code of the outer Any simply indicates that the type of the value is Any Extraction of type Any values is by read-only pointer as with user-defined types:
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CORBA::Any outer; CORBA::Any inner; inner <<= (CORBA::Long)5; outer <<= inner; CORBA::Any * extracted; outer >>= extracted;
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// Insert 5 into inner // Insert inner into outer // Extract any by pointer
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CORBA::Long long_val; *extracted >>= long_val; // Extract from extracted any assert (long_val == 5); // Check value // The Any `outer' still owns the memory pointed to by `extracted'
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As with all types extracted by pointer, the extracted pointer points at memory owned by the Any, so you must not deallocate the pointer As with other user-defined types, consuming insertion of an Any is possible by inserting a pointer:
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CORBA::Any outer; CORBA::Any * inner_p = new CORBA::Any; // Create an any *inner_p <<= (CORBA::Long)5; // Insert 5 into inner outer <<= inner_p; // Insert inner into outer // outer will deallocate inner_p
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15310 Inserting and Extracting Exceptions An Any is capable of storing an exception This may come as a surprise to you because, as we mention in Section 49, exceptions are not permissible as member types or parameter types The mapping permits exceptions to be placed into Any values because the Dynamic Skeleton Interface (DSI) requires servers to raise exceptions by inserting them into an Any We strongly discourage you from using type Any to transmit exceptions as if they were parameters Although this practice is technically legal, it is bad style because operation parameters were never intended for exception passing (exceptions are error indicators and not data)
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The IDL compiler generates a separate overloaded <<= operator for every system and user exception, so you can insert an exception just as you insert any other data type Both copying and consuming insertion is provided:
CORBA::Any a; CORBA::BAD_PARAM bp; CORBA::PERSIST_STORE * ps_p; a <= bp; // ps_p = new CORBA::PERSIST_STORE; a <= ps_p; // // Exception on the stack // Pointer to exception Copying insertion // Exception on the heap Consuming insertion
As with other complex data types, extraction from an Any is by pointer:
CORBA::Any a; CORBA::BAD_PARAM bp; a <= bp; CORBA::BAD_PARAM * ep; a >>= ep;