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1 Introduction
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11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Introduction Organization of the Book CORBA Version Typographical Conventions Source Code Examples Vendor Dependencies Contacting the Authors
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11 Introduction
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CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture) is now well established in the mainstream of software development and has found phenomenal industry acceptance CORBA is supported on almost every combination of hardware and operating system in existence It is available from a large number of vendors (even as freeware), supports a large number of programming languages, and is now being used to create mission-critical applications in industries as diverse as health care, telecommunications, banking, and manufacturing The increasing popularity of CORBA has created a corresponding increase in demand for software engineers who are competent in the technology Naturally, CORBA has had to evolve and grow (sometimes painfully) to reach its current levels of popularity and deployment When the first version of CORBA was published in 1991, it specified how to use it only in C programs This was a result of building CORBA from proven technology At that time, most production-quality distributed systems were written in C By 1991, object-oriented (OO) languages such as Smalltalk, C++, and Eiffel had been in use for years Not surprisingly, many developers thought it strange that a languageindependent distributed OO system such as CORBA could be programmed only using C, a non-OO, procedural language To correct this short-coming, several development groups at companies such as Hewlett-Packard, Sun Microsystems, HyperDesk Corporation, and IONA Technologies started developing their own proprietary mappings of CORBA to the C++ language These proprietary mappings of CORBA to C++, all invented independently, differed in many ways As most C++ programmers know, C++ is a multiparadigm language that supports varied approaches to application development, including structured programming, data abstraction, OO programming, and generic programming The proprietary C++ mappings reflected this diversity; each of them mapped different CORBA data types and interfaces into different (sometimes very different) C++ types and classes The mapping differences reflected not only the varied backgrounds of the developers but also the ways they intended to use CORBA to build systems as diverse as software integration middleware, operating systems, and even desktop tool kits
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IT-SC book: Advanced CORBA Programming with C++
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When the Object Management Group (OMG) issued a Request For Proposals (RFP) for a standard mapping of CORBA to C++, these developers and other groups submitted their mappings to the standardization process As is common for OMG RFP submissions, the submitting groups joined forces to try to reach consensus and arrive at a single C++ mapping specification that would draw from the strengths of all the submitted mappings The process of producing a single standard C++ mapping for CORBA took approximately 18 months, lasting from the spring of 1993 until the fall of 1994 For technical reasons, such as the richness of C++ and its support for diverse programming styles, the consensus-building process was not an easy one At one point, because of the competitive spirit and political nature of some of the parties involved (both characteristics are inevitable in any industry standards group), the C++ mapping standardization effort fell apart completely However, the need for a standard C++ mapping eventually overcame all obstacles, and the standardization was completed in the fall of 1994 The C++ mapping was first published with CORBA 20 Since its adoption, the mapping has been revised several times to fix flaws and to introduce minor new functionality Despite this, the mapping has remained surprisingly stable and portable even while the C++ language was undergoing its own standardization process The standard C++ mapping removed a major obstacle to broad acceptance of CORBA because it created source code portability, at least for the client side The server side still suffered from portability problems until CORBA 22 CORBA 20 also removed another major obstacle by providing the Internet Inter-ORB Protocol (IIOP) IIOP guarantees that system components developed for different vendors' ORBs can interoperate with one another, whereas before CORBA 20, different system components could communicate only if all of them used the same vendor's ORB The C++ mapping and IIOP were key features that initiated CORBA's move into the mainstream and made it a viable technology for many commercial companies This increased popularity of CORBA also meant an increased demand for extensions and bug fixes As a result, the specification has been revised three times since the publication of CORBA 20 CORBA 21 was largely a cleanup release that addressed a number of defects CORBA 22 added one major new feature: the Portable Object Adapter (POA) The POA, together with an update to the C++ mapping, removed the server-side portability problems that existed to that point CORBA 23, the most recent release, as of this writing, fixed many minor bugs and added one major new feature, Objects-By-Value The OMG has now grown to more than 800 members, making it the world's largest industry consortium, and CORBA has become the world's most popular and widely used middleware platform In our estimation, C++ is the dominant implementation language for CORBA (although Java is making some inroads for client development) Demand for CORBA-literate C++ programmers continuously outstrips supply, and it seems likely that CORBA will remain the dominant middleware technology for at least several more years This book is all about making you CORBA-literate and giving you the information you need to be able to write production-quality CORBA-based systems
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