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Where a test data builder for an object uses other built objects, we can pass in those builders as arguments rather than their objects This will simplify the test code by removing the build() methods The result is easier to read because it emphasizes the important information what is being built rather than the mechanics of building it For example, this code builds an order with no postcode, but it s dominated by the builder infrastructure:
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Order orderWithNoPostcode = new OrderBuilder() fromCustomer( new CustomerBuilder() withAddress(new AddressBuilder()withNoPostcode()build()) build()) build();
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We can remove much of the noise by passing around builders:
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Order order = new OrderBuilder() fromCustomer( new CustomerBuilder() withAddress(new AddressBuilder()withNoPostcode()))) build();
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We can further reduce the noise in the test code by wrapping up the construction of the builders in factory methods:
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Order order = anOrder()fromCustomer( aCustomer()withAddress(anAddress()withNoPostcode()))build();
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As we compress the test code, the duplication in the builders becomes more obtrusive; we have the name of the constructed type in both the with and builder methods We can take advantage of Java s method overloading by collapsing this to a single with() method, letting the Java type system gure out which eld to update:
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Order order = anOrder()from(aCustomer()with(anAddress()withNoPostcode()))build();
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Obviously, this will only work with one argument of each type For example, if we introduce a Postcode, we can use overloading, whereas the rest of the builder methods must have explicit names because they use String:
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Address aLongerAddress = anAddress() withStreet("221b Baker Street") withCity("London") with(postCode("NW1", "3RX")) build();
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This should encourage us to introduce domain types, which, as we wrote in Domain Types Are Better Than Strings (page 213), leads to more expressive and maintainable code
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We ve made the process of assembling complex objects for tests simpler and more expressive by using test data builders Now, let s look at how we can structure our tests to make the best use of these builders in context We often nd ourselves writing tests with similar code to create supporting objects and pass them to the code under test, so we want to clean up this duplication We ve found that some refactorings are better than others; here s an example
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First, Remove Duplication
We have a system that processes orders asynchronously The test feeds orders into the system, tracks their progress on a monitor, and then looks for them in a user interface We ve packaged up all the infrastructure so the test looks like this:
@Test public void reportsTotalSalesOfOrderedProducts() { Order order1 = anOrder() withLine("Deerstalker Hat", 1) withLine("Tweed Cape", 1) withCustomersReference(1234) build(); requestSendersend(order1); progressMonitorwaitForCompletion(order1); Order order2 = anOrder() withLine("Deerstalker Hat", 1) withCustomersReference(5678) build(); requestSendersend(order2); progressMonitorwaitForCompletion(order2); TotalSalesReport report = guiopenSalesReport(); reportcheckDisplayedTotalSalesFor("Deerstalker Hat", is(equalTo(2))); reportcheckDisplayedTotalSalesFor("Tweed Cape", is(equalTo(1))); }
There s an obvious duplication in the way the orders are created, sent, and tracked Our rst thought might be to pull that into a helper method:
@Test public void reportsTotalSalesOfOrderedProducts() { submitOrderFor("Deerstalker Hat", "Tweed Cape"); submitOrderFor("Deerstalker Hat"); TotalSalesReport report = guiopenSalesReport(); reportcheckDisplayedTotalSalesFor("Deerstalker Hat", is(equalTo(2))); reportcheckDisplayedTotalSalesFor("Tweed Cape", is(equalTo(1))); }
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Removing Duplication at the Point of Use
void submitOrderFor(String products) { OrderBuilder orderBuilder = anOrder() withCustomersReference(nextCustomerReference()); for (String product : products) { orderBuilder = orderBuilderwithLine(product, 1); } Order order = orderBuilderbuild(); requestSendersend(order); progressMonitorwaitForCompletion(order); }
This refactoring works ne when there s a single case but, like the object mother pattern, does not scale well when we have variation As we deal with orders with different contents, amendments, cancellations, and so on, we end up with this sort of mess:
void submitOrderFor(String products) { [ ] void submitOrderFor(String product, int count, String otherProduct, int otherCount) { [ ] void submitOrderFor(String product, double discount) { [ ] void submitOrderFor(String product, String giftVoucherCode) { [ ]
We think a bit harder about what varies between tests and what is common, and realize that a better alternative is to pass the builder through, not its arguments; it s similar to when we started combining builders The helper method can use the builder to add any supporting detail to the order before feeding it into the system:
@Test public void reportsTotalSalesOfOrderedProducts() { sendAndProcess(anOrder() withLine("Deerstalker Hat", 1) withLine("Tweed Cape", 1)); sendAndProcess(anOrder() withLine("Deerstalker Hat", 1)); TotalSalesReport report = guiopenSalesReport(); reportcheckDisplayedTotalSalesFor("Deerstalker Hat", is(equalTo(2))); reportcheckDisplayedTotalSalesFor("Tweed Cape", is(equalTo(1))); } void sendAndProcess(OrderBuilder orderDetails) { Order order = orderDetails withDefaultCustomersReference(nextCustomerReference()) build(); requestSendersend(order); progressMonitorwaitForCompletion(order); }