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We use an array, ENTITY_TYPES, to ensure that the entity types (and, therefore, database tables) are cleaned in an order that does not violate referential integrity when rows are deleted from the database3 We add DatabaseCleaner to a setup method, to initialize the database before each test For example:
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public class ExamplePersistenceTest { final EntityManagerFactory factory = PersistencecreateEntityManagerFactory("example"); final EntityManager entityManager = factorycreateEntityManager(); @Before public void cleanDatabase() throws Exception { new DatabaseCleaner(entityManager)clean(); } [ ] }
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For brevity, we won t show this cleanup in the test examples You should assume that every persistence test starts with the database in a known, clean state
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A common technique to isolate tests that use a transactional resource (such as a database) is to run each test in a transaction which is then rolled back at the end of the test The idea is to leave the persistent state the same after the test as before The problem with this technique is that it doesn t test what happens on commit, which is a signi cant event The ORM ushes the state of the objects it is managing in memory to the database The database, in turn, checks its integrity constraints A test that never commits does not fully exercise how the code under test interacts with the database Neither can it test interactions between distinct transactions Another disadvantage of rolling back is that the test discards data that might be useful for diagnosing failures Tests should explicitly delineate transactions We also prefer to make transaction boundaries stand out, so they re easy to see when reading the test We usually extract transaction management into a subordinate object, called a transactor, that runs a unit of work within a transaction In this case, the transactor will coordinate JPA transactions, so we call it a JPATransactor4
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3 We ve left entityNameOf() out of this code excerpt The JPA says the the name of an entity is derived from its related Java class but doesn t provide a standard API to do so We implemented just enough of this mapping to allow DatabaseCleaner to work 4 In other systems, tests might also use a JMSTransactor for coordinating transactions in a Java Messaging Service (JMS) broker, or a JTATransactor for coordinating distributed transactions via the standard Java Transaction API (JTA)
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public interface UnitOfWork { void work() throws Exception; } public class JPATransactor { private final EntityManager entityManager; public JPATransactor(EntityManager entityManager) { thisentityManager = entityManager; } public void perform(UnitOfWork unitOfWork) throws Exception { EntityTransaction transaction = entityManagergetTransaction(); transactionbegin(); try { unitOfWorkwork(); transactioncommit(); } catch (PersistenceException e) { throw e; } catch (Exception e) { transactionrollback(); throw e; } } }
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The transactor is called by passing in a UnitOfWork, usually created as an anonymous class:
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transactorperform(new UnitOfWork() { public void work() throws Exception { customersaddCustomer(aNewCustomer()); } });
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This pattern is so useful that we regularly use it in our production code as well We ll show more of how the transactor is used in the next section
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Container-Managed Transactions Many Java applications use declarative container-managed transactions, where the application framework manages the application s transaction boundaries The framework starts each transaction when it receives a request to an application component, includes the application s transactional resources in transaction, and commits or rolls back the transaction when the request succeeds or fails Java EE is the canonical example of such frameworks in the Java world
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The techniques we describe in this chapter are compatible with this kind of framework We have used them to test applications built within Java EE and Spring, and with plain old Java programs that use JPA, Hibernate, or JDBC directly The frameworks wrap transaction management around the objects that make use of transactional resources, so there s nothing in their code to mark the application s transaction boundaries The tests for those objects, however, need to manage transactions explicitly which is what a transactor is for In the tests, the transactor uses the same transaction manager as the application, con gured in the same way This ensures that the tests and the full application run the same transactional code It should make no difference whether a transaction is controlled by a block wrapped around our code by the framework, or by a transactor in our tests But if we ve made a mistake and it does make a difference, our end-to-end tests should catch such failures by exercising the application code in the container
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