The Essence of Object-Oriented Design in Java

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UML - Sequence Diagrams Once you have some candidate objects, hierarchies, and behaviors identified, it can be useful to understand how the objects will interact with each other The UML provides Sequence Diagrams to help this process A sequence diagram shows example object instances horizontally with lifetimes that stretch vertically, with time flowing from top to bottom Sequence diagrams are often used in association with use cases each scenario depicted in a sequence diagram They are helpful for understanding just how objects will interact with each other during particular cases For example, below is a sequence diagram for the borrow a book scenario given in the UML Use Case sidebar on page 87 The boxes at the top (aReader, aLibrarian, theLibrary, aBorrowing) represent specific instances of objects Note that a specific name (eg, theLibrary) is used for the instance, and not a class name (eg, LibrarySystem) The names typically use "a" or "the" to indicate some specific instance is being used The dashed vertical line below each is the time line The open box around the timeline indicates the object is in an active operation The horizontal lines with arrows represent messages to other objects For example, aReader sends the borrow message to aLibrarian When an object sends a message to itself, the arrow loops back on the object Thus, theLibrary sends a message to itself to find the Reader because theLibrary has the list of readers The dashed lines to the left represent returns These need be supplied only when they add clarity to the diagram
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The three diagram types we've used so far, object diagrams, use case diagrams, and sequences, are the most useful UML diagrams, and the ones you will see most often There are others, which are described in the sidebar "More UML" on page 113 Note that this example is based on a specific scenario, and can be used to help with the final design - which operations will be needed, such as findReader, borrow, and so on In other cases, sequence diagrams are helpful to understand behavior of existing designs We will use them to help clarify some of the Java Swing examples in 5
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The Essence of Object-Oriented Design
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In the strict technical sense, Object-Oriented Design (OOD) takes the
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results of the Object-Oriented Analysis phase and produces a detailed design suitable for implementation in an object-oriented programming language In some methodologies, especially those applied to very large software projects, this is close to what happens However, for smaller projects, the exact line between analysis and design, and even between design and implementation, is not always that clear One of the main differences between OOA and OOD is the level of detail required One of the goals of OOD is to refine the OOA candidate objects into real classes, define the operations and attributes, decide on specific data structures, and account for the target system Some OO methodologies separate design and implementation, while others blend the process somewhat, relying on quick feedback from the implementation to discover the inevitable design errors and provide quick feedback While OOA is often done by specialized analysts, the designers and programmers are often the same people UML - Level of Detail One of the reasons that makes the UML a good tool is that it can be used throughout the entire development cycle The level of detail that you can view with class diagrams provides a good example During the analysis phase, the focus is at a higher level This means less detail with the UML class diagrams Thus, an analysis view of the shapes we discussed in 3 can look like this:
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