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OutputStream
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Listing 112
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private class EchoWorker implements Runnable { Socket s; InputStream sin; OutputStream sout; private EchoWorker(Socket s) throws IOException { thiss = s; sin = sgetInputStream(); sout = sgetOutputStream(); } public void run() { try {
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int count = 0; while (count != -1) { int c = sinread(); if (c != -1) { soutwrite(c); } } } catch (IOException ioe) { Systemoutprintln(ioegetMessage()); ioeprintStackTrace(); } finally { try { sclose(); sinclose(); soutclose(); } catch (IOException _) {} } } }
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To test the echo server, we ll need an echo client2 The echo client used here connects to the server and transmits a xed amount of data to the server It closes the connection after it has received all of the data it transmitted The effective throughput of the server is measured by the client by dividing the number of bytes transmitted by the time elapsed between when the rst byte is transmitted and the last byte is received This is a measurement of the full-duplex 3 throughput of the server The total number of bytes owing between the client and server, ignoring network packet overhead, is twice the number of bytes transmitted by the client With the run method implemented as shown in Listing 112, the echo server achieves a total throughput of 110 bytes per second We can see why the server is so slow by examining the series of events that occurs every time we invoke the write method on the SocketOutputStream First, the write method invokes a native method to send the byte to the socket layer of the network stack The native socket write routine copies the byte into a TCP output buffer From there the byte makes its way down the network stack and nally is transmitted onto the network In the read case, the data ow is reversed, but the cost per byte is about the same Even if the overhead incurred by data processing in the network stack were negligible, the throughput would still be greatly limited just by the number of Java method invocations We ll see in the next section that method invocations are fairly expensive
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2 The source code of the echo client and server used to generate the performance numbers that follow is included in the CD that accompanies this text 3 Data is being simultaneously transmitted and received by both the client and server
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Listing 113
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Modi ed run method
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byte[] buf = new byte[4096]; public void run() { try { int count = 0; while (count != -1) { count = sinread(buf, 0, buflength); if (count > 0) { soutwrite(buf, 0, count); } } } catch (IOException ioe) { } }
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If we change the run method to do block reads and writes, each method invocation can move multiple bytes at almost the same cost as moving a single byte Listing 113 shows a modi ed run method The new version creates a 4-kilobyte buffer that is used for both reads from and writes to the socket s streams The read method that takes a byte array, an offset into the array, and a byte count is used to receive data from the client It blocks until at least 1 byte of data is available to the stream Once 1 or more bytes are available, they are copied into the caller-provided byte array The number of bytes actually copied into the byte array is returned by read All of the bytes read from the SocketInputStream are then written to the SocketOutputStream The write operation is accomplished using the ef cient write method that also takes a byte array, an offset into the array, and a length The length supplied to write is identical to the number of bytes received by read If only 1 byte is available every time read is invoked, then the situation hasn t improved any The read method will return the byte, and it will be echoed to the client However, if the client is transmitting data at a rapid pace, there will usually be multiple bytes available on the input stream In this example, data is being received over a TCP connection on an Ethernet network This means the messages received by the network stack can contain as much as 14604 bytes of application data Since there is no guarantee that an application will be ready to receive network data as soon as it s available, the network stack maintains fairly large buffers for receive and transmit data TINI s network stack uses input buffers of 4 kilobytes in length hence the size of buf chosen in Listing 113
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4 The maximum length of an unfragmented IP datagram encapsulated within an Ethernet frame is 1500 bytes Accounting for a 20-byte IP header and a 20-byte TCP header, the resulting segment payload can be as large as 1460 bytes
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