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In this example, I'll show you how to refactor Composite-based code to use a Collecting Parameter I'll start with a Composite that can model an XML tree (see Replace Implicit Tree with Composite, 178 for a complete example) The Composite is modeled with a single class, called TagNode, which has a toString() method The toString() method recursively walks the nodes in an XML tree and produces a final String representation of what it finds It does a fair amount of work in 11 lines of code In the steps presented here, I refactor toString() to make it simpler and easier to understand
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1 The following toString() method recursively accumulates information from every tag in a Composite structure and stores results in a variable called result:
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class TagNode public String toString() { String result = new String(); result += "<" + tagName + " " + attributes + ">"; Iterator it = childreniterator(); while (ithasNext()) { TagNode node = (TagNode)itnext(); result += nodetoString(); } if (!valueequals("")) result += value; result += "</" + tagName + ">"; return result; }
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I change result's type to be a StringBuffer:
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StringBuffer result = new StringBuffer("");
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The compiler is happy with this change 2 I identify the first information accumulation step: code that concatenates an XML open tag along with any attributes to the result variable I apply Extract Method [F] on this code as follows, so that this line:
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result += "<" + tagName + " " + attributes + ">";
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is extracted to:
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private void writeOpenTagTo(StringBuffer result) { resultappend("<"); resultappend(name); resultappend(attributestoString()); resultappend(">"); }
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The original code now looks like this:
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StringBuffer result = new StringBuffer(""); writeOpenTagTo(result);
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3 Next, I want to continue applying Extract Method [F] on parts of the toString() method I focus on the code that adds child XML nodes to result This code contains a recursive step (highlighted in bold):
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class TagNode public String toString() Iterator it = childreniterator(); while (ithasNext()) { TagNode node = (TagNode)itnext(); result +=
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} if (!valueequals("")) result += value; }
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The recursive step means that the Collecting Parameter needs to be passed to thetoString() method But that's a problem, as the following code shows:
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private void writeChildrenTo(StringBuffer result) { Iterator it = childreniterator(); while (ithasNext()) { TagNode node = (TagNode)itnext();
nodetoString(result); // can't do this because toString() doesn't take arguments
} }
Because toString() doesn't take aStringBuffer as an argument, I can't simply extract the method I have to find another solution I decide to solve the problem using a helper method, which will do the work that toString() used to do but will take aStringBuffer as a Collecting Parameter:
public String toString() {
StringBuffer result = new StringBuffer(""); appendContentsTo(result); return resulttoString();
private void appendContentsTo(StringBuffer result) { writeOpenTagTo(result); }
Now the recursion that's needed can be handled by theappendContentsTo() method:
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private String appendContentsTo(StringBuffer result) { writeOpenTagTo(result);
writeChildrenTo(result);
return resulttoString(); } private void writeChildrenTo(StringBuffer result) { Iterator it = childreniterator(); while (ithasNext()) { TagNode node = (TagNode)itnext();
nodeappendContentsTo(result); // now recursive call will work
} if (!valueequals(""))
resultappend(value);
As I stare at the writeChildrenTo() method, I realize that it is handling two steps: adding children recursively and adding a value to a tag, when one exists To make these two separate steps stand out, I extract the code for handling a value into its own method:
private void writeValueTo(StringBuffer result) { if (!valueequals("")) resultappend(value); }
To finish the refactoring, I extract one more method that writes an XML close tag Here's how the final code looks: