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This refactoring's mechanics are identical to those of Inline Class [F] In the following steps, an absorbing class is one that will take on the responsibilities of the inlined Singleton
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1 Declare the Singleton's public methods on your absorbing class Make the new methods delegate back to the Singleton, and remove any "static" designations they may have (in the absorbing class) If your absorbing class is itself a Singleton, you'll want to keep the "static" designations for the methods 2 Change all client code references to the Singleton to references to the absorbing class
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3 Use Move Method [F] and Move Field [F] to move features from the Singleton to the absorbing class until there is nothing left As in step 1, if your absorbing class is not a Singleton itself, remove any "static" designations from the methods and fields you move
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Compile and test 4 Delete the Singleton
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Example
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The code for this example comes from an early evolution of a simple, console-based blackjack game The game is played on a console by displaying a player's cards, repeatedly prompting a player to hit or stay, and then displaying the player's hand and the dealer's hand to reveal who won Test code can run this game and simulate user input, such as hitting and staying during game play A player's simulated input is specified and obtained at runtime from a Singleton called Console, which holds on to one instance of HitStayResponse or one of its subclasses: public class Console { static private HitStayResponse hitStayResponse = new HitStayResponse(); private Console() { super(); } public static HitStayResponse obtainHitStayResponse(BufferedReader input) { hitStayResponsereadFrom(input); return hitStayResponse; } public static void setPlayerResponse(HitStayResponse newHitStayResponse) { hitStayResponse = newHitStayResponse; } }
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Prior to starting game play, a particular HitStayResponse is registered with the Console For example, here's some test code that registers a TestAlwaysHitResponse instance with the Console: public class ScenarioTest extends TestCase public void testDealerStandsWhenPlayerBusts() {
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ConsolesetPlayerResponse(new TestAlwaysHitResponse());
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int[] deck = { 10, 9, 7, 2, 6 }; Blackjack blackjack = new Blackjack(deck); blackjackplay(); assertTrue("dealer wins", blackjackdidDealerWin()); assertTrue("player loses", !blackjackdidPlayerWin()); assertEquals("dealer total", 11, blackjackgetDealerTotal()); assertEquals("player total", 23, blackjackgetPlayerTotal()); }
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The Blackjack code that calls the Console to obtain the registered HitStayResponse instance isn't complicated code Here's how it looks: public class Blackjack public void play() { deal(); writeln(playergetHandAsString()); writeln(dealergetHandAsStringWithFirstCardDown()); HitStayResponse hitStayResponse; do { write("H)it or S)tay: "); hitStayResponse =
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Console obtainHitStayResponse(input);
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write(hitStayResponsetoString()); if (hitStayResponseshouldHit()) { dealCardTo(player); writeln(playergetHandAsString()); } } while (canPlayerHit(hitStayResponse)); // }
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The above code doesn't live in an application layer that's surrounded by other application layers, thereby making it hard to pass one HitStayResponse instance all the way to a layer that needs it All of the code to access a HitStayResponse instance lives within Blackjack itself So why should Blackjack have to go through a Console just to get to a HitStayResponse It shouldn't! It's yet another Singleton that doesn't need to be a Singleton Time to refactor
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1 The first step is to declare the public methods of Console, the Singleton, on Blackjack, the absorbing class When I do this, I make each method delegate back to the Console, and I remove the "static" designation for each method:
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public class Blackjack
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public static HitStayResponse obtainHitStayResponse(BufferedReader input) { return ConsoleobtainHitStayResponse(input); } public static void setPlayerResponse(HitStayResponse newHitStayResponse) { ConsolesetPlayerResponse(newHitStayResponse); }
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2 Now I change all callers to Console methods to be callers to Blackjack's versions of the methods Here are a few such changes:
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public class ScenarioTest extends TestCase public void testDealerStandsWhenPlayerBusts() {
ConsolesetPlayerResponse(new TestAlwaysHitResponse());
int[] deck = { 10, 9, 7, 2, 6 }; Blackjack blackjack = new Blackjack(deck);
blackjacksetPlayerResponse(new TestAlwaysHitResponse());
blackjackplay(); assertTrue("dealer wins", blackjackdidDealerWin()); assertTrue("player loses", !blackjackdidPlayerWin()); assertEquals("dealer total", 11, blackjackgetDealerTotal()); assertEquals("player total", 23, blackjackgetPlayerTotal()); }
public class Blackjack public void play() { deal(); writeln(playergetHandAsString()); writeln(dealergetHandAsStringWithFirstCardDown()); HitStayResponse hitStayResponse; do { write("H)it or S)tay: "); hitStayResponse =
Console obtainHitStayResponse(input);
write(hitStayResponsetoString()); if (hitStayResponseshouldHit()) { dealCardTo(player); writeln(playergetHandAsString()); } } while (canPlayerHit(hitStayResponse)); // }
At this point I compile, run my automated tests, and play the game on the console to confirm that everything is working correctly 3 I can now apply Move Method [F] and Move Field [F] to get all of Console's features onto Blackjack When I'm done, I compile and test to make sure that Blackjack still works 4 Now I delete Console and, as Martin recommends in hisInline Class [F] refactoring, I hold a very short but moving memorial service for another ill-fated Singleton