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When we compared Spring with SCA in the rst chapter, we made the distinction between wiring-in-the-small versus wiring-in-the-large The former involves the assembly of components in a single address space In contrast, wiring-in-the-large entails component assembly across remote boundaries Spring is about wiring-inthe small ; SCA deals with both Throughout the book, we have also discussed how wiring is done only within a domain In other words, wires exist only between two components deployed to the same domain This is because SCA does not de ne interoperable wiring between domains There is no guarantee the two domains will support the same wire communications protocol To communicate outside a domain either to a non-SCA service or a service provided by a component in another domain bindings are used Wouldn t it be useful if SCA enabled wiring between domains where two domains could negotiate a communications protocol and enforce policy such as security This type of wiring-in-the-really-large would simplify cross-domain communication, as bindings would not have to be con gured on references To achieve this, SCA would need to standardize an interoperable way to obtain details about the contents of a domain, and in particular, its services Domains would advertise a set of available services and their endpoint addresses much like a component It would then be possible to wire across domains in much the same way that wiring is done today within a domain Currently, the SCA speci cation committees have not indicated whether this is a future area of development However, it s useful and fun (at least for people who like technology) to think about how SCA may evolve in the future
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Types of Domains
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Broadly speaking, domains t into one of three categories: local, distributed, or federated
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To use a clich , domains come in a number of shapes and sizes Most of the examples we have used throughout the book show distributed domains with multiple runtimes This can lead to the impression that a domain s complex infrastructure is ill-suited for more basic needs On the contrary, although domains can scale up, they are also capable of scaling down A domain can be contained within a single server environment or even in an embedded device
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Broadly speaking, domains t into one of three categories: local, distributed, or federated Different vendors may support one or more of these domain types Table 92 summarizes the different types of domains, which we explain further in this section
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Table 92 Type Local Domain Types Description Contained in a single process or server partition Examples include web applications and embedded devices Are not fault tolerant Spread across multiple runtimes, likely running on different machines Tend to support high-end features such as fault tolerance and reliability Spread across multiple different types of runtimes Provide support for creating composite applications developed using multiple technologies Tend to support high-end features such as fault tolerance and reliability
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Local Domains A local domain is one where the domain is contained within a single process or partition on a machine For example, a local domain may be hosted within a single server instance Or in server environments that support segregating code, the domain may be contained within a partition Local domains are commonly used for embedded devices and server installations where scalability demands are limited and high availability is not needed An example of a local domain is one embedded in a web application, as illustrated in Figure 96
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A local domain is one where the domain is contained within a single process or partition on a machine
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The Domain
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Domains embedded in web applications
This diagram illustrates how local domains can be embedded in web applications where the browser-based UI tier interacts with services and has the services exposed to nonbrowser clients via an HTTP-based binding such as web services Distributed Domains A distributed domain is one where the domain is spread across multiple processes Typically, these processes will be individual runtimes running on different machines Distributed domains are most commonly used when services need to be hosted in multiple runtimes for scalability (spread processing load), availability (provide redundancy), or security (segregate code) reasons An example of a distributed domain is one that is spread across an application server cluster As we mentioned earlier, application server clusters are often managed by a speci c server, sometimes referred to as the administration server When a domain is mapped to this type of cluster architecture, the administration server is responsible for interfacing with the contribution repository and