Testing Components in Java

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A better solution is to introduce a mock for the CreditService Mock objects, as they are referred to, mimic speci c behavior of real objects and generally have trivial implementations A mock CreditService implementation, for example, would always return a good or bad score Mocks are manually set on component implementations by the unit test Components then call mocks as if they were reference proxies to real service providers
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Writing mock objects by hand can be tedious, particularly if only one method is required for a particular test case Several mock object generation frameworks have emerged that automate much of this process We recommend EasyMock (http://wwweasymockorg) for testing SCA components The following example demonstrates testing the LoanComponent using a mock CreditService:
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1 2 3 4 5 CreditScoreService creditService = EasyMockcreateMock(CreditServiceclass); EasyMockexpect(creditServicescoreApplicant (EasyMockisA(Stringclass)))andReturn(700); EasyMockreplay(creditService); LoanService loanService = new LoanComponent(creditService); // test the loanService
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EasyMock works by rst creating a mock, recording behavior (that is, the methods that will be called on it, including parameter and return values), and setting the mock into replay state before using it In the previous example:
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CreditService creditService = EasyMockcreateMock (CreditServiceclass);
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creates the mock service The expected behavior, a call to the CreditService scoreApplicant() with a return value of 700, is then recorded:
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EasyMockexpect(creditServicescoreApplicant (EasyMockisA(Stringclass)))andReturn(700);
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Finally, the mock service is placed in replay state:
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EasyMockreplay(creditService);
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after which it can be passed to the LoanComponent and invoked like the actual CreditService implementation At the end of the test run, the unit test can verify that the mock service has been properly called by through the verify operation:
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EasyMockverify(creditService);
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Service-Based Development Using Java
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The ef ciencies of using mocks with SCA are most evident when dealing with remotable services When deployed to production, the LoanComponent and CreditComponent could be hosted on separate JVMs, where the SCA runtime would handle setting up the appropriate remote communications infrastructure (for example, web services) In a unit test environment, on a developer machine, deploying these components to separate containers and setting up remote communications is cumbersome It is also unnecessary: The goal of unit testing the LoanComponent should be to ensure that it functions properly according to business requirements, not that it can communicate over a remote protocol to the CreditService (The latter would be a goal of integration testing, which veri es that parts of a system work together) Investing upfront in a good testing strategy reduces overall project costs Building on the lessons learned with CORBA and EJB, SCA was designed to facilitate ef cient testing, particularly at the unit test level When unit testing SCA components, keep three things in mind First, don t use a container; instantiate component implementation directly in the test case Second, use mocks to test component implementations in isolation And if you cannot do one and two easily, refactor your component implementation because it is generally a sign of bad design
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Summary
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This chapter covered the basics of developing loosely coupled services using the SCA Java programming model These included service contract design, asynchronous communications, and component life cycle Many of these features particularly asynchronous communications have their antecedents in integration and messaging software The SCA Java programming model provides an arguably more uni ed and simpler approach to distributed applications than its predecessors In the next chapter, we extend this discussion to creating conversational services using the Java programming model
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Conversational Interactions Using Java
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The last two chapters covered service-based development using the SCA Java programming model Putting this into practice in 3, Service-Based Development Using Java, we refactored the BigBank loan application to re ect SCA best practices by taking advantage of loose coupling and asynchronous interactions In this chapter, we continue our coverage of the Java programming model, focusing on building conversational services
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