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Home-grown cryptography can go wrong in many subtle ways, both in the design of the algorithm and in its implementation Publicly studied algorithms are stronger because they have been vetted by the cryptography community Widely used implementations that have been certified by one or more organizations are less likely to contain subtle implementations errors that negate the security of the algorithm design Finally, even the most secure algorithms and implementations can be misused in ways that undermine their effectiveness Use the algorithms you choose in the way they were intended Don t take shortcuts, and don t try to be inventive Depending on the languages and platforms you need to support, you might already have access to all the cryptography you need Java includes implementations of most common algorithms in the Java Cryptography Architecture (JCA)9 and Java Cryptography Extension (JCE),10 including AES, RSA, and SHA-2 (The division between JCA and JCE was originally due to the US export laws on cryptography [DOC, 2000]; when these laws were relaxed in 1996 the JCE was integrated into the JDK with the JCA) As with much of Java platform, JCA and JCE are provider based, which means they provide both a framework for implementing algorithms and several specific implementations in the form of providers A notable advantage of this architecture is that, in many cases, a program can transition from one algorithm to another with only minor code changes This way, when a better alternative becomes available, the transition can be made easily and with a minimal risk of introducing errors Example 1112 demonstrates encrypting and decrypting a string using the AES implementation in JCE
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Example 1112 Code that encrypts and decrypts a string using the AES implementation in JCE When it completes, cleartext and cleartext1 will contain the same value
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byte[] cleartext = "This is a message to test AES"getBytes(); // generate a secret key KeyGenerator keygen = KeyGeneratorgetInstance("AES"); SecretKey aesKey = keygengenerateKey(); // get an AES instance and initialize it to encrypt with the secret key Cipher aesCipher = CiphergetInstance("AES/ECB/PKCS5Padding"); aesCipherinit(CipherENCRYPT_MODE, aesKey);
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9 http://javasuncom/j2se/142/docs/guide/security/CryptoSpechtml 10 http://javasuncom/products/jce/
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// encrypt the message byte[] ciphertext = aesCipherdoFinal(cleartext); // initialize the AES instance to decrypt with the same secret key aesCipherinit(CipherDECRYPT_MODE, aesKey); // decrypt the message byte[] decryptedCiphertext = aesCipherdoFinal(ciphertext);
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On Microsoft platforms, the situation is much the same for C and C++ The Microsoft CryptoAPI11 includes implementations of most common cryptography algorithms Because of US export restrictions on strong cryptography, users of Windows 2000 and earlier must download more advanced algorithms and those that accept longer key lengths separately as part of the Internet Explorer High Encryption Pack12 and Windows 2000 High Encryption Pack The speci c implementation details of the Microsoft framework make it dif cult to include a concise example in print, but we encourage you to refer to MSDN for examples of using the Microsoft CryptoAPI to encrypt and decrypt messages [Microsoft, 2007] On other platforms or for cross-platform support in C and C++, a variety of other cryptography libraries that implement the algorithms we recommend are available under exible licenses, such as Crypto++13 (public domain), Nettle14 (GPL), and XySSL15 (LGPL) NIST maintains lists of open source and commercial implementations of AES,16 RSA,17 and SHA-1/SHA-218 that have been certi ed for federal use RSA Security (the division of EMC, not the algorithm) provides a commercial cryptography library for Java and C/C++19 that is widely used and comes with the additional bene t of support
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11 http://msdn2microsoftcom/en-us/library/aa380256aspx 12 http://wwwmicrosoftcom/windows/ie/ie6/downloads/recommended/128bit/defaultmspx 13 http://wwwcryptoppcom 14 http://wwwlysatorliuse/~nisse/nettle/ 15 http://xysslorg/code/ 16 http://csrcnistgov/cryptval/aes/aesvalhtml 17 http://csrcnistgov/cryptval/dss/rsavalhtml 18 http://csrcnistgov/cryptval/shs/shavalhtm 19 http://wwwrsasecuritycom/nodeasp id=1204
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Static Analysis: Don t Step in the Crypto Patty
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Identifying home-grown cryptographic algorithms with static analysis is much more dif cult than calling attention to public implementations that shouldn t be used Aside from simple name matches, such as looking for functions named encrypt(), the best approach is to look for the telltale signs that cryptography is occurring Cryptography often leaves behind droppings in the form of rarely used arithmetic operations, such as XOR (^), bitwise AND (&), and bitwise OR (|) If you d like to search a body of code to look for home-grown cryptography, use the following rule to ag every use of one of these bitwise operations and review them manually:
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Operation: ((op == "^") or (op == "%") or (op == "|"))
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