18: RSpec in Java

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18: RSpec
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You can also talk to the subject directly For example, you may need to invoke a method off the subject to change object state:
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describe BlogPost do subject { BlogPostnew :title => 'foo', :body => 'bar' } it "sets published timestamp" do subjectpublish! subjectpublished should == true end end
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Here we call the publish! method off the subject Mentioning subject directly is the way we get ahold of that BlogPost instance we set up Finally, we assert that the published boolean is true
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18212 its
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The its method works hand-in-hand with the fact that RSpec examples delegate to a subject It can make your specs very compact and readable Let s look at a quick example:
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describe Array do its(:length) { should == 0 } end
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The implicit subject here is the Arraynew instance And the length call is made on that subject Finally, the should call is made on that result of the length call That example was a bit simple, here s a meatier example that shows off what its can do:
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describe BlogPost do subject do blog_post = BlogPostnew :title => 'foo', :body => 'bar' blog_postpublish! blog_post end it { should be_valid } its(:errors) { should be_empty } its(:title) { should == 'foo' } its(:body) { should == 'bar' } its(:published_on) { should == Datetoday } end
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183 Predicate Matchers
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What s awesome is you still get the English translation of the Ruby code in the specdoc output:
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BlogPost - should be valid BlogPost errors - should be empty BlogPost title - should == "foo" BlogPost body - should == "bar" BlogPost published_on - should == Fri, 26 Mar 2010
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183 Predicate Matchers
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Thanks to method_missing, RSpec can support arbitrary predicates, that is, it understands that if you invoke something that begins with be_, then it should use the rest of the method name as an indicator of which predicate-style method to invoke the target object (By convention, a predicate method in Ruby ends with a and should return the equivalent of true or false) The simplest hard-coded predicate-style matchers are:
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targetshould be targetshould be_true targetshould be_false targetshould be_nil targetshould_not be_nil
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RSpec
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Arbitrary predicate matchers can assert against any target, and even support parameters!
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thingshould be collectionshould be_empty targetshould_not be_empty targetshould_not be_under_age(16) # # # # passes passes passes passes if thing is not nil or false if targetempty unless targetempty unless targetunder_age (16)
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As an alternative to prefixing arbitrary predicate matchers with be_, you may choose from the indefinite article versions be_a_ and be_an_, making your specs read much more naturally:
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"a string"should be_an_instance_of(String) 3should be_a_kind_of(Fixnum) 3should be_a_kind_of(Numeric) 3should be_an_instance_of(Fixnum) 3should_not be_instance_of(Numeric) #fails
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18: RSpec
The cleverness (madness ) doesn t stop there RSpec will even understand have_ prefixes as referring to predicates like has_key :
{:foo => "foo"}should have_key(:foo) {:bar => "bar"}should_not have_key(:foo)
RSpec has a number of expectation matchers for working with classes that implement module Enumerable You can specify whether an array should include a particular element, or if a string contains a substring This one always weirds me out when I see it in code, because my brain wants to think that include is some sort of language keyword meant for mixing modules into classes It s just a method, so it can be overriden easily
[1, 2, 3]should include(1) [1, 2, 3]should_not include(4) "foobar"should include("bar") "foobar"should_not include("baz")
You get a slick bit of syntactic sugar for testing the length of collections:
[1, 2, 3]should have(3)items
What if you want to specify the length of a has_many collection Scheduledaysshould have(3)items is admittedly quite ugly RSpec gives us some more sweetness here as well
scheduleshould have(3)days # passes if scheduledayslength == 3
184 Custom Expectation Matchers
When you find that none of the stock expectation matchers provide a natural-feeling expectation, you can very easily write your own All you need to do is write a Ruby class that implements the following two methods: