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A 2-tier application
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software on other computers via a network, such as a database server or Internet services) The business tier is the part of the software that does the core work of the application, such as calculating tax; it is the part of the application that speci cally implements the software requirements The user-interface tier is developed to manage user-interactions At its simplest, that involves accepting user-input, displaying results and accepting commands, although user-interface design can involve much more than this For example, a well-designed user-interface can display partial results, record user-interactions to allow them to be undone in the event of an error, generate graphical representations of application data, anticipate user actions to simplify input (as Visual Studio does with Intellisense), enable and disable commands as appropriate to reduce the possibility of error and display application status One very important bene t to developing the business tier separately is that it makes the workings of the application easier to test and maintain By allowing a number of different designs of user-interface to be used, it is possible to create a variation of the system where the business model is attached to a very simple userinterface that simply passes established test data into the business tier and examines the results Whenever any work is done on the business tier, it can be re-tested quickly and easily by building a test version of the application and running the tests
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Exercise 83
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Identify the separate tiers for business processing and user-interface management for the TaxCalc program a) b) Which objects in the program correspond to which tiers How are the two tiers organized in terms of code modules
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A WinForms application has a user-interface based around forms, which are objects of classes that can be either designed for a particular task in a speci c application, or, usefully, designed to perform a common task that might be needed in many applications Microsoft provides a number of forms which are standard enough to
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The Save File common dialog
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be built into the Windows operating system These common dialogs are accessed by either calling on standard functions that are part of Windows itself, known as API (Application Programmer Interface) functions or, more usefully from a Visual Basic WinForms program, by activating them from controls that can be placed on the main form of the VB application They are available to perform common tasks such as getting the user to enter a le-name and location, selecting a le to load, picking a colour or font, or con guring a printer before a print job is run Figure 84 shows the FileSaveDialog in action, and Listing 83 shows typical code needed to activate it and collect the le-name entered by the user
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Private Sub btnSave_Click(ByVal sender As SystemObject, _ ByVal e As SystemEventArgs) Handles btnSaveClick Dim fileName As String With SaveDlg 'SaveDlg is a control on a form Filter = "Text Files|*txt" If ShowDialog() = DialogResultOK Then fileName = FileName 'Go on to save the file End If End With End Sub Listing 83: Using the FileSaveDialog
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Other forms are either designed speci cally for a particular purpose in an application program or designed to be used in a range of applications, in either case using the WinForms designer built into Visual Studio When you create a new WinForms application in Visual Studio, you are automatically given a blank form which you can then go on to customize by adding controls and setting properties for the form and added controls You can also add code to a form in the way we have created code for Console applications up till now
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8 n WinForms Applications
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Exercise 84
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Considering how easy it is to display and use an item as complex as, for example the Save File common dialog, you might think that there would be more use made of this particular way of writing code to interact with the user a) b) What prevents Microsoft from providing you with a wide enough range of common dialog boxes to suit every programming need How might you try to use this way of working so that your own forms were as easy to use in applications
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