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must have an element whose value is annotationElementTypeFIELD, or a compile-time error occurs Annotation modi ers are described further in 97 If two or more (distinct) eld modi ers appear in a eld declaration, it is customary, though not required, that they appear in the order consistent with that shown above in the production for FieldModi er 8311 static Fields
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class Test { public static void main(String[] args) { Point p = new Point(1,1); Point q = new Point(2,2); px = 3; py = 3; puseCount++; poriginuseCount++; Systemoutprintln("(" + qx + "," + qy + ")"); Systemoutprintln(quseCount); Systemoutprintln(qorigin == Pointorigin); Systemoutprintln(qoriginuseCount); } }
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prints:
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(2,2) 0 true 1
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showing that changing the elds x, y, and useCount of p does not affect the elds of q, because these elds are instance variables in distinct objects In this example, the class variable origin of the class Point is referenced both using the class name as a quali er, in Pointorigin, and using variables of the class type in eld access expressions ( 1511), as in porigin and qorigin These two ways
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class Point { int x, y, useCount; Point(int x, int y) { thisx = x; thisy = y; } final static Point origin = new Point(0, 0); }
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If a eld is declared static, there exists exactly one incarnation of the eld, no matter how many instances (possibly zero) of the class may eventually be created A static eld, sometimes called a class variable, is incarnated when the class is initialized ( 124) A eld that is not declared static (sometimes called a non-static eld) is called an instance variable Whenever a new instance of a class is created, a new variable associated with that instance is created for every instance variable declared in that class or any of its superclasses The example program:
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of accessing the origin class variable access the same object, evidenced by the fact that the value of the reference equality expression ( 15213):
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qorigin==Pointorigin
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is true Further evidence is that the incrementation:
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poriginuseCount++;
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causes the value of qoriginuseCount to be 1; this is so because porigin and qorigin refer to the same variable 8312 final Fields A eld can be declared final ( 4124) Both class and instance variables (static and non-static elds) may be declared final It is a compile-time error if a blank final ( 4124) class variable is not de nitely assigned ( 168) by a static initializer ( 87) of the class in which it is declared A blank final instance variable must be de nitely assigned ( 169) at the end of every constructor ( 88) of the class in which it is declared; otherwise a compile-time error occurs 8313 transient Fields
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Variables may be marked transient to indicate that they are not part of the persistent state of an object If an instance of the class Point:
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class Point { int x, y; transient float rho, theta; }
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were saved to persistent storage by a system service, then only the elds x and y would be saved This speci cation does not specify details of such services; see the speci cation of javaioSerializable for an example of such a service 8314 volatile Fields As described in 17, the Java programming language allows threads to access shared variables As a rule, to ensure that shared variables are consistently and reliably updated, a thread should ensure that it has exclusive use of such variables by obtaining a lock that, conventionally, enforces mutual exclusion for those shared variables The Java programming language provides a second mechanism, volatile elds, that is more convenient than locking for some purposes
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