An Example of Exceptions in Java

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114 An Example of Exceptions
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Consider the following example:
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class TestException extends Exception { TestException() { super(); } TestException(String s) { super(s); }
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class Test { public static void main(String[] args) { for (String arg :args) { try { thrower(arg); Systemoutprintln("Test \"" + arg +
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"\" didn't throw an exception"); } catch (Exception e) { Systemoutprintln("Test \"" + arg + "\" threw a " + egetClass() + "\n with message: " + egetMessage()); } } } static int thrower(String s) throws TestException { try { if (sequals("divide")) { int i = 0; return i/i; } if (sequals("null")) { s = null; return slength(); } if (sequals("test")) throw new TestException("Test message"); return 0; } finally { Systemoutprintln("[thrower(\"" + s + "\") done]"); } }
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If we execute the test program, passing it the arguments:
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divide null not test
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it produces the output:
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[thrower("divide") done] Test "divide" threw a class javalangArithmeticException with message: / by zero [thrower("null") done] Test "null" threw a class javalangNullPointerException with message: null [thrower("not") done] Test "not" didn't throw an exception [thrower("test") done] Test "test" threw a class TestException with message: Test message
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This example declares an exception class TestException The main method of class Test invokes the thrower method four times, causing exceptions to be thrown three of the four times The try statement in method main catches each
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The Exception Hierarchy
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exception that the thrower throws Whether the invocation of thrower completes normally or abruptly, a message is printed describing what happened The declaration of the method thrower must have a throws clause because it can throw instances of TestException, which is a checked exception class ( 112) A compile-time error would occur if the throws clause were omitted Notice that the finally clause is executed on every invocation of thrower, whether or not an exception occurs, as shown by the [thrower() done] output that occurs for each invocation
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115 The Exception Hierarchy
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The possible exceptions in a program are organized in a hierarchy of classes, rooted at class Throwable ( 115), a direct subclass of Object The classes Exception and Error are direct subclasses of Throwable The class RuntimeException is a direct subclass of Exception Programs can use the pre-existing exception classes in throw statements, or de ne additional exception classes, as subclasses of Throwable or of any of its subclasses, as appropriate To take advantage of the Java platform s compile-time checking for exception handlers, it is typical to de ne most new exception classes as checked exception classes, speci cally as subclasses of Exception that are not subclasses of RuntimeException The class Exception is the superclass of all the exceptions that ordinary programs may wish to recover from The class RuntimeException is a subclass of class Exception The subclasses of RuntimeException are unchecked exception classes The subclasses of Exception other than RuntimeException and its subclasses are all checked exception classes The class Error and its subclasses are exceptions from which ordinary programs are not ordinarily expected to recover See the Java API speci cation for a detailed description of the exception hierarchy The class Error is a separate subclass of Throwable, distinct from Exception in the class hierarchy, to allow programs to use the idiom:
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} catch (Exception e) {
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to catch all exceptions from which recovery may be possible without catching errors from which recovery is typically not possible
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EXCEPTIONS
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Virtual Machine Errors
1151 Loading and Linkage Errors The Java virtual machine throws an object that is an instance of a subclass of LinkageError when a loading, linkage, preparation, veri cation or initialization error occurs: The loading process is described in 122 The linking process is described in 123 The class veri cation process is described in 1231 The class preparation process is described in 1232 The class initialization process is described in 124 1152 Virtual Machine Errors