Client Code for Invoking a Service Operation in VS .NET

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Listing 19 Client Code for Invoking a Service Operation
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A WCF service can be hosted by any managed process running in the operating system The service itself typically doesn t know or care about how it is hosted, although there are plenty of APIs through which it can nd out It can be hosted in an unattended Windows Service that starts when the machine is booted and shuts down only when the machine does so, or even in a client-side application minimized in the Windows system tray The most common usage, however, is to host a WCF service in IIS
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Discussion IIS is well suited for hosting services It s built in to Windows and there is a signi cant knowledge base published about managing, securing, and developing applications IIS is scalable, reliable, and can be made quite secure so it provides an excellent base for hosting services ASMX, based on IIS, was the most widely adopted mechanism for publishing Web services before WCF, and WCF builds on that legacy ASMX is replaced by WCF in NET 35 as the recommended way to publish Web services in IIS Again, remember the ABCs of WCF: address, binding, and contract When hosting in IIS, the address of a service is de ned by the virtual directory that contains the service les The binding will always use the HTTP/S and protocol because that s what IIS understands, so are available These are just two of the system-de ned bindings that can be used; any binding that leverages the HTTP protocol is valid for IIS hosting The contract, the SOAP de nition of the service endpoints,
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1: Basics
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is not constrained by the fact that IIS is hosting the service, so no special contract rules apply for IIS hosting Like ASMX, metadata, in the form of WSDL, can be obtained from an IIS-hosted service by addressing the service with WSDL as a parameter (http://localhost/myservicesvc wsdl) When IIS receives this request, it calls the MEX endpoint of the service and returns the result as WSDL Unlike ASMX, however, the MEX endpoint is not exposed by default, so it will not respond to metadata requests from Visual Studio 2008 Add Service You must explicitly enable the MEX endpoint in Reference or code (shown in code Listing 14) or con guration (shown in Listing 15)
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Hosting a Service in IIS in Three Steps There are three steps in hosting a service in IIS:
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Create a virtual application in IIS to store the service Create a SVC le to de ne the service implementation Augment the section le to include a
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Define an IIS Virtual Application
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A virtual application in IIS associates an application pool and a virtual directory For WCF, the application pool creates the ServiceHost and the virtual directory stores of the service les (SVC, con g, dll)
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The SVC le references the service implementation The SVC le can be created using any text editor or Visual Studio In most cases, the implementation class will reside in a DLL and will be referenced by the SVC le The DLL must reside in the /bin folder in the virtual directory or stored in the GAC Listing 110 shows an SVC le that references a compiled NET class
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Listing 110 SVC File Referencing a Compiled Service
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Alternatively, the SVC le can contain the actual implementation In that case, the SVC le will be longer, but there will be fewer external dependencies Because the source code is resident on the IIS server that is hosting the service, the source code can be modi ed by an operations or support team without access to a development environment for compiling a DLL This has obvious risks and bene ts Risks include loss of control over intellectual property and change management, because the code is visible and updatable on every Web server Also, performance will suffer with this method Bene ts include code transparency and break- xes, because customers know exactly what the code does and how to change it if necessary Listing 111 shows an SVC le that contains a service implementation This code will be compiled on its rst invocation
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