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Files are opened using the built-in open() function, which returns a le object (of type ioTextIOWrapper for text les) The open() function takes one mandatory argument the lename, which may include a path and up to six optional arguments, two of which we brie y cover here The second argument is the mode this is used to specify whether the le is to be treated as a text le or as a binary le, and whether the le is to be opened for reading, writing, appending, or a combination of these
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7 (File Handling)
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For text les, Python uses an encoding that is platform-dependent Where possible it is best to specify the encoding using open() s encoding argument, so the syntaxes we normally use for opening les are these:
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fin = open(filename, encoding="utf8") fout = open(filename, "w", encoding="utf8") # for reading text # for writing text
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Because open() s mode defaults to read text , and by using a keyword rather than a positional argument for the encoding argument, we can omit the other optional positional arguments when opening for reading And similarly, when opening to write we need to give only the arguments we actually want to use (Argument passing is covered in depth in 4) Once a le is opened for reading in text mode, we can read the whole le into a single string using the le object s read() method, or into a list of strings using the le object s readlines() method A very common idiom for reading line by line is to treat the le object as an iterator:
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for line in open(filename, encoding="utf8"): process(line)
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This works because a le object can be iterated over, just like a sequence, with each successive item being a string containing the next line from the le The lines we get back include the line termination character, \n If we specify a mode of w , the le is opened in write text mode We write to a le using the le object s write() method, which takes a single string as its argument Each line written should end with a \n Python automatically translates between \n and the underlying platform s line termination characters when reading and writing Once we have nished using a le object we can call its close() method this will cause any outstanding writes to be ushed In small Python programs it is very common not to bother calling close(), since Python does this automatically when the le object goes out of scope If a problem occurs, it will be indicated by an exception being raised
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a subtler approach We call dictget() with a default value of 0 If the word is already in the dictionary, dictget() will return the associated number, and this value plus 1 will be set as the item s new value If the word is not in the dictionary, dictget() will return the supplied default of 0, and this value plus 1 (ie, 1) will be set as the value of a new item whose key is the string held by word To clarify, here are two code snippets that do the same thing, although the code using dictget() is more ef cient:
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if word not in words: words[word] = 0 words[word] += 1
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words[word] = wordsget(word, 0) + 1
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In the next subsection where we cover default dictionaries, we will see an alternative solution Once we have accumulated the dictionary of words, we iterate over its keys (the words) in sorted order, and print each word and the number of times it occurs Using dictget() allows us to easily update dictionary values, providing the values are single items like numbers or strings But what if each value is itself a collection To demonstrate how to handle this we will look at a program that reads HTML les given on the command line and prints a list of each unique Web site that is referred to in the les with a list of the referring les listed indented below the name of each Web site Structurally, the program (external_sitespy) is very similar to the unique words program we have just reviewed Here is the main part of the code:
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sites = {} for filename in sysargv[1:]: for line in open(filename): i = 0 while True: site = None i = linefind("http://", i) if i > -1: i += len("http://") for j in range(i, len(line)): if not (line[j]isalnum() or line[j] in "-"): site = line[i:j]lower() break if site and "" in site: sitessetdefault(site, set())add(filename) i = j else: break
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