Data Types in Java

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The syntax may seem weird enough to make a Perl programmer feel at home, but don t worry it is explained in 4 All that matters for now is that we can use variable names in format strings and leave Python to ll in their values simply by unpacking the dictionary returned by locals() or some other dictionary into the strformat() method For example, we could rewrite the elephant example we saw earlier to have a much nicer format string with simpler eld names
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>>> "The {animal} weighs {weight}kg"format(**d) 'The elephant weighs 12000kg'
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Unpacking a dictionary into the strformat() method allows us to use the dictionary s keys as eld names This makes string formats much easier to understand, and also easier to maintain, since they are not dependent on the order of the arguments Note, however, that if we want to pass more than one argument to strformat(), only the last one can use mapping unpacking
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Conversions
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Decimal
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When we discussed decimalDecimal numbers we noticed that such numbers are output in one of two ways For example:
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>>> decimalDecimal("34084") Decimal('34084') >>> print(decimalDecimal("34084")) 34084
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The rst way that the decimalDecimal is shown is in its representational form The purpose of this form is to provide a string which if interpreted by Python would re-create the object it represents Python programs can evaluate snippets of Python code or entire programs, so this facility can be useful in some situations Not all objects can provide a reproducing representation, in which case they provide a string enclosed in angle brackets For example, the representational form of the sys module is the string "<module 'sys' (built-in)>" The second way that decimalDecimal is shown is in its string form This form is aimed at human readers, so the concern is to show something that makes sense to people If a data type doesn t have a string form and a string is required, Python will use the representational form Python s built-in data types know about strformat(), and when passed as an argument to this method they return a suitable string to display themselves It is also straightforward to add strformat() support to custom data types as we will see in 6 In addition, it is possible to override the data type s normal behavior and force it to provide either its string or its representational form This is done by adding a conversion speci er to the eld Currently there are three such speci ers: s to force string form, r to force representational form,
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and a to force representational form but only using ASCII characters Here is an example:
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>>> "{0} {0!s} {0!r} {0!a}"format(decimalDecimal("934")) "934 934 Decimal('934') Decimal('934')"
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In this case, decimalDecimal s string form produces the same string as the string it provides for strformat() which is what commonly happens Also, in this particular example, there is no difference between the representational and ASCII representational forms since both use only ASCII characters Here is another example, this time concerning a string that contains the title of a movie, " ", held in the variable movie If we print the string using "{0}"format(movie) the string will be output unchanged, but if we want to avoid non-ASCII characters we can use either ascii(movie) or "{0!a}"format(movie), both of which will produce the string '\u7ffb\u8a33 \u3067\u5931\u308f\u308c\u308b' So far we have seen how to put the values of variables into a format string, and how to force string or representational forms to be used Now we are ready to consider the formatting of the values themselves
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Format Speci cations
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The default formatting of integers, oating-point numbers, and strings is often perfectly satisfactory But if we want to exercise ne control, we can easily do so using format speci cations We will deal separately with formatting strings, integers, and oating-point numbers, to make learning the details easier The the general syntax that covers all of them is shown in Figure 26 For strings, the things that we can control are the ll character, the alignment within the eld, and the minimum and maximum eld widths A string format speci cation is introduced with a colon (:) and this is followed by an optional pair of characters a ll character (which may not be }) and an alignment character (< for left align, ^ for center, > for right align) Then comes an optional minimum width integer, and if we want to specify a maximum width, this comes last as a period followed by an integer Note that if we specify a ll character we must also specify an alignment We omit the sign and type parts of the format speci cation because they have no effect on strings It is harmless (but pointless) to have a colon without any of the optional elements Let s see some examples:
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>>> s = "The sword of truth" >>> "{0}"format(s) # default formatting 'The sword of truth'