Rapid Introduction to Procedural Programming in Java

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1 Rapid Introduction to Procedural Programming
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If the conversion succeeds, we use number as an index into the Digits list, from which we extract the digit list of strings We then add the row-th string from this list to the line we are building up, and also append two spaces to give some horizontal separation between each digit Each time the inner while loop nishes, we print the line that has been built up The key to understanding this program is where we append each digit s row string to the current row s line Try running the program to get a feel for how it works We will return to this program in the exercises to improve its output slightly
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generate_gridpy
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One frequently occurring need is the generation of test data There is no single generic program for doing this, since test data varies enormously Python is often used to produce test data because it is so easy to write and modify Python programs In this subsection we will create a program that generates a grid of random integers; the user can specify how many rows and columns they want and over what range the integers should span We ll start by looking at a sample run:
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generate_gridpy rows: 4x invalid literal for int() with base 10: '4x' rows: 4 columns: 7 minimum (or Enter for 0): -100 maximum (or Enter for 1000): 554 720 550 217 -24 908 742 -65 711 968 824 505 180 -60 794 173
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The program works interactively, and at the beginning we made a typing error when entering the number of rows The program responded by printing an error message and then asking us to enter the number of rows again For the maximum we just pressed Enter to accept the default We will review the code in four parts: the import, the de nition of a get_int() function (a more sophisticated version than the one shown in Piece #8), the user interaction to get the values to use, and the processing itself
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import random
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random randint()
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We need the random module to give us access to the randomrandint() function
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Examples
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def get_int(msg, minimum, default): while True: try: line = input(msg) if not line and default is not None: return default i = int(line) if i < minimum: print("must be >=", minimum) else: return i except ValueError as err: print(err)
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This function requires three arguments: a message string, a minimum value, and a default value If the user just presses Enter there are two possibilities If default is None, that is, no default value has been given, the ow of control will drop through to the int() line There the conversion will fail (since '' cannot be converted to an integer), and a ValueError exception will be raised But if default is not None, then it is returned Otherwise, the function will attempt to convert the text the user entered into an integer, and if the conversion is successful, it will then check that the integer is at least equal to the minimum that has been speci ed So, the function will always return either default (if the user just pressed Enter), or a valid integer that is greater than or equal to the speci ed minimum
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rows = get_int("rows: ", 1, None) columns = get_int("columns: ", 1, None) minimum = get_int("minimum (or Enter for 0): ", -1000000, 0) default = 1000 if default < minimum: default = 2 * minimum maximum = get_int("maximum (or Enter for " + str(default) + "): ", minimum, default)
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Our get_int() function makes it easy to obtain the number of rows and columns and the minimum random value that the user wants For rows and columns we give a default value of None, meaning no default, so the user must enter an integer In the case of the minimum, we supply a default value of 0, and for the maximum we give a default value of 1 000, or twice the minimum if the minimum is greater than or equal to 1 000 As we noted in the previous example, function call argument lists can span any number of lines, and indentation is irrelevant for their second and subsequent lines
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