The if Statement in Java

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The if Statement
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The general syntax for Python s if statement is this:
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if boolean_expression1: suite1 elif boolean_expression2: suite2 elif boolean_expressionN: suiteN else: else_suite
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In this book, ellipses ( ) are used to indicate lines that are not shown
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There can be zero or more elif clauses, and the nal else clause is optional If we want to account for a particular case, but want to do nothing if it occurs, we can use pass as that branch s suite The rst thing that stands out to programmers used to C++ or Java is that there are no parentheses and no braces The other thing to notice is the colon: This is part of the syntax and is easy to forget at rst Colons are used with else, elif, and essentially in any other place where a suite is to follow Unlike most other programming languages, Python uses indentation to signify its block structure Some programmers don t like this, especially before they have tried it, and some get quite emotional about the issue But it takes just a few days to get used to, and after a few weeks or months, brace-free code seems much nicer and less cluttered to read than code that uses braces Since suites are indicated using indentation, the question that naturally arises is, What kind of indentation The Python style guidelines recommend four spaces per level of indentation, and only spaces (no tabs) Most modern text editors can be set up to handle this automatically (IDLE s editor does of course, and so do most other Python-aware editors) Python will work ne with any number of spaces or with tabs or with a mixture of both, providing that the indentation used is consistent In this book, we follow the of cial Python guidelines Here is a very simple if statement example:
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if x: print("x is nonzero")
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In this case, if the condition (x) evaluates to True, the suite (the print() function call) will be executed
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if lines < 1000: print("small") elif lines < 10000: print("medium") else: print("large")
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This is a slightly more elaborate if statement that prints a word that describes the value of the lines variable
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The while Statement
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The while statement is used to execute a suite zero or more times, the number of times depending on the state of the while loop s Boolean expression Here s the syntax:
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while boolean_expression: suite
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Actually, the while loop s full syntax is more sophisticated than this, since both break and continue are supported, and also an optional else clause that we will discuss in 4 The break statement switches control to the statement following the innermost loop in which the break statement appears that is, it breaks out of the loop The continue statement switches control to the start of the loop Both break and continue are normally used inside if statements to conditionally change a loop s behavior
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while True: item = get_next_item() if not item: break process_item(item)
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This while loop has a very typical structure and runs as long as there are items to process (Both get_next_item() and process_item() are assumed to be custom functions de ned elsewhere) In this example, the while statement s suite contains an if statement, which itself has a suite as it must in this case consisting of a single break statement
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The for in Statement
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Python s for loop reuses the in keyword (which in other contexts is the membership operator), and has the following syntax:
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for variable in iterable: suite
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Just like the while loop, the for loop supports both break and continue, and also has an optional else clause The variable is set to refer to each object in the iterable in turn An iterable is any data type that can be iterated over, and includes strings (where the iteration is character by character), lists, tuples, and Python s other collection data types
for country in ["Denmark", "Finland", "Norway", "Sweden"]: print(country)
Here we take a very simplistic approach to printing a list of countries In practice it is much more common to use a variable:
countries = ["Denmark", "Finland", "Norway", "Sweden"] for country in countries: print(country)