Local functions in Java

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Local functions
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Character encodings 91
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The strencode() method returns a bytes object with the string encoded according to the speci ed encoding UTF-8 is a very convenient encoding because it can represent any Unicode character and is especially compact when representing ASCII characters (just one byte each) The format variable is set to hold a struct format based on the string s length For example, given the string
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The struct module provides structpack(), structunpack(), and some other functions, and the structStruct() class The structpack() function takes a struct format string and one or more values and returns a bytes object that holds all the values represented in accordance with the format The structunpack() function takes a format and a bytes or bytearray object and returns a tuple of the values that were originally packed using the format For example:
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data = structpack("<2h", 11, -9) items = structunpack("<2h", data) # data == b'\x0b\x00\xf7\xff' # items == (11, -9)
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Format strings consist of one or more characters Most characters represent a value of a particular type If we need more than one value of a type we can either write the character as many times as there are values of the type ("hh"), or precede the character with a count as we have done here ("2h") Many format characters are described in the struct module s online documentation, including b (8-bit signed integer), B (8-bit unsigned integer), h (16-bit signed integer used in the examples here), H (16-bit unsigned integer), i (32-bit signed integer), I (32-bit unsigned integer), q (64-bit signed integer), Q (64-bit unsigned integer), f (32-bit oat), d (64-bit oat this corresponds to Python s float type), (Boolean), s (bytes or bytearray object byte strings), and many others For some data types such as multibyte integers, the processor s endianness makes a difference to the byte order We can force a particular byte order to be used regardless of the processor architecture by starting the format string with an endianness character In this book we always use < , which means little-endian since that s the native endianness for the widely used Intel and AMD processors Big-endian (also called network byte order) is signi ed by > (or by ! ) If no endianness is speci ed the machine s endianness is used We recommend always specifying the endianness even if it is the same as the machine being used since doing so keeps the data portable The structcalcsize() function takes a format and returns how many bytes a struct using the format will occupy A format can also be stored by creating a structStruct() object giving it the format as its argument, with the size of the structStruct() object given by its size attribute For example:
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TWO_SHORTS = structStruct("<2h") data = TWO_SHORTSpack(11, -9) items = TWO_SHORTSunpack(data) # data == b'\x0b\x00\xf7\xff' # items == (11, -9)
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In both examples, 11 is 0x000b, but this is transformed into the bytes 0x0b 0x00 because we have used little-endian byte ordering
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enwikipediaorg , the format will be "<H16s" (little-endian byte order, 2-byte unsigned integer, 16-byte byte string), and the bytes object that is returned will be b'\x10\x00enwikipediaorg' Conveniently, Python shows bytes objects in a compact form using printable ASCII characters where possible, and hexadecimal escapes (and some special escapes like \t and \n) otherwise The pack_string() function can handle strings of up to 65 535 UTF-8 characters We could easily switch to using a different kind of integer for the byte count; for example, a 4-byte signed integer (format i ) would allow for strings of up to 231-1 (more than 2 billion) characters The struct module does provide a similar built-in format, p , that stores a single byte as a character count followed by up to 255 characters For packing, the code using p format is slightly simpler than doing all the work ourselves But p format restricts us to a maximum of 255 UTF-8 characters and provides almost no bene t when unpacking (For the sake of comparison, versions of pack_string() and unpack_string() that use p format are included in the convert-incidentspy source le) We can now turn our attention to the rest of the code in the export_binary() method
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fh = None try: if compress: fh = gzipopen(filename, "wb") else: fh = open(filename, "wb") fhwrite(MAGIC) fhwrite(FORMAT_VERSION) for incident in selfvalues(): data = bytearray() dataextend(pack_string(incidentreport_id)) dataextend(pack_string(incidentairport)) dataextend(pack_string(incidentaircraft_id)) dataextend(pack_string(incidentaircraft_type)) dataextend(pack_string(incidentnarrativestrip())) dataextend(NumbersStructpack( incidentdatetoordinal(), incidentpilot_percent_hours_on_type, incidentpilot_total_hours, incidentmidair)) fhwrite(data) return True
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