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Table 84 Marinescu Layers
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Marinescu Presentation Application Services Domain Persistence
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Fowler Presentation Presentation (Application Controller (379)) Domain (Service Layer (133)) Domain (Domain Model (116)) Data source
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The idea of splitting a services layer from a domain layer is based on a separation of workflow logic from pure domain logic The services layer typically includes logic that's particular to a single use case and also some communication with other infrastructures, such as messaging Whether to have separate services and domain layers is a matter some debate I tend to look as it as occasionally useful rather than mandatory, but designers I respect disagree with me on this
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[Nilsson] uses one of the more complex layering schemes (see Table 85) Mapping to this scheme is made a bit more complex by the fact that Nilsson uses stored procedures extensivel, and encourages domain logic in them for performance reasons I'm uncomfortable with putting domain logic in stored procedures, as it can make an application much harder to maintain On occasion, however, it's a valuable optimization technique Nilsson's stored procedure layers contain both data source and domain logic
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Like [Marinescu], Nilsson uses separate application and domain layers for domain logic He suggests that you can skip the domain layer in a small system, which is similar to my view that a Domain Model (116) is less worthwhile for smaller systems
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Table 85 Nilsson Layers
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Nilsson Consumer Consumer helper Application Domain Persistence access Public stored procedures Private stored procedures
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Fowler Presentation Presentation (Application Controller (379)) Domain (Service Layer (133)) Domain (Domain Model (116)) Data source Data source (may include some domain) Data source (may include some domain)
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9 Domain Logic Patterns 10 Data Source Architectural Patterns 11 Object-Relational Behavioral Patterns 12 Object-Relational Structural Patterns 13 Object-Relational Metadata Mapping Patterns 14 Web Presentation Patterns 15 Distribution Patterns 16 Offline Concurrency Patterns 17 Session State Patterns 18 Base Patterns References
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Transaction Script Domain Model Table Module Service Layer
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Organizes business logic by procedures where each procedure handles a single request from the presentation
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Most business applications can be thought of as a series of transactions A transaction may view some information as organized in a particular way, another will make changes to it Each interaction between a client system and a server system contains a certain amount of logic In some cases this can be as simple as displaying information in the database In others it may involve many steps of validations and calculations
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A Transaction Script organizes all this logic primarily as a single procedure, making calls directly to the database or through a thin database wrapper Each transaction will have its own Transaction Script, although common subtasks can be broken into subprocedures
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With Transaction Script the domain logic is primarily organized by the transactions that you carry out with the system If your need is to book a hotel room, the logic to check room availability, calculate rates, and update the database is found inside the Book Hotel Room procedure
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For simple cases there isn't much to say about how you organize this Of course, as with any other program you should structure the code into modules in a way that makes sense Unless the transaction is particularly complicated, that won't be much of a challenge One of the benefits of this approach is that you don't need to worry about what other transactions are doing Your task is to get the input, interrogate the database, munge, and save your results to the database
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Where you put the Transaction Script will depend on how you organize your layers It may be in a server page, a CGI script, or a distributed session object My preference is to separate Transaction Scripts as much as you can At the very least put them in distinct subroutines; better still, put them in classes separate from those that handle presentation and data source In addition, don't have any calls from the Transaction Scripts to any presentation logic; that will make it easier to modify the code and test the Transaction Scripts
You can organize your Transaction Scripts into classes in two ways The most common is to have several Transaction Scripts in a single class, where each class defines a subject area of related Transaction Scripts This is straightforward and the best bet for most cases The other way is to have each Transaction Script in its own class (Figure 91), using the Command pattern [Gang of Four] In this case you define a supertype for your commands that specifies some execute method in which Transaction Script logic fits The advantage of this is that it allows you to manipulate instances of scripts as objects at runtime, although I've rarely seen a need to do this with the kinds of systems that use Transaction Scripts to organize domain logic Of course, you can ignore classes completely in many languages and just use global functions However, you'll often find that instantiating a new object helps with threading issues as it makes it easier to isolate data