Communicating over Secure Sockets Layer in Java

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Communicating over Secure Sockets Layer
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The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocol is intended to provide privacy and integrity between two communicating applications SSL is designed to sit above a transport protocol (such as TCP) and below application protocols (such as LDAP) As part of
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Communicating over Secure Sockets Layer 179
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the SSL Handshake Protocol, a client and server can identify themselves to each other by using digital certi cates Note that the use of certi cates for authentication is optional; a client and server can use SSL and still use the standard password-based method of authentication A standard has been de ned for initiating an SSL session in LDAP The standard speci es that a nonsecure session can become an SSL session if the client requests startTLS TLS stands for Transport Layer Security, and it is the more recent term for SSL, as well as the one used in standards documents Once an SSL session has been initiated, the session cannot revert to being nonsecure However, startTLS has not been widely implemented at the time of this writing Netscape Directory Server can authenticate and encrypt a session with SSL, but it does so on a separate port from the nonsecure sessions Whereas 389 is the standard port for nonsecure connections, 636 is the standard for SSL connections In the following examples, the client immediately begins an SSL session with the server at the secure port when calling LDAPConnectionconnect There is no startTLS step To connect to the directory server over SSL, do the following: 1 Set up the directory server to accept connections over LDAPS (the LDAP protocol that runs over SSL) Netscape Directory Server supports LDAPS To con gure the directory server to use LDAPS, you will need to get a certi cate for the server (either from a trusted certi cate authority or from your own certi cate server), install the certi cate, and trust the certi cate authority that issued the certi cate You will also need to specify the ciphers you want used for encryption For information on setting up Netscape Directory Server to use LDAPS, see the Netscape Directory Server Administrator s Guide For information on setting up LDAPS in other servers, see the Web site for each vendor (listed in Appendix A) 2 Obtain a Java class that implements SSL sockets (for example, Phaos Technology provides a class in their SSLava Toolkit: crysecSSLSSLSocket) Directory SDK for Java includes an interface for creating sockets (LDAPSocketFactory) and two classes that implement that interface for SSL sockets (LDAPSSLSocketFactory and LDAPSSLSocketWrapFactory) Note that these classes do not implement SSL sockets on their own Both classes expect you to specify the name of a class that implements SSL sockets LDAPSSLSocketFactory and LDAPSSLSocketWrapFactory use that speci ed class to construct an SSL socket You must nd and import a class that implements the createSocket method of the javaxnetsslSSLSocket abstract class If the class that implements SSL sockets extends the Socket class, use the LDAPSSLSocketFactory class to create the SSL socket If the class does
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180 Securing the Data
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not extend the Socket class (for example, if it extends the Object class), use the LDAPSSLSocketWrapFactory class instead Note that Netscape Navigator 405 and more recent versions include the netscapenetSSLSocket class, which implements SSL sockets If you are writing a Java applet that will run in Navigator, you can use this class To connect to the directory server over SSL, your LDAP client needs to do the following: 1 Construct a new LDAPSSLSocketFactory object or a new LDAPSSLSocket WrapFactory object You need to specify the name of the class that implements SSL sockets If you are writing a Java applet that runs in Netscape Navigator 405 or later, you can omit the class name The netscapenetSSLSocket class is used by default Construct a new LDAPConnection object, passing in the LDAPSSLSocketFactory or LDAPSSLSocketWrapFactory object 2 Invoke the LDAPConnectionconnect method to establish a connection to the server over LDAPS For example, the following section of code uses the SSLava package from Phaos Technology to implement SSL sockets
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import netscapeldap*; import crysecSSL*; LDAPConnection ld = null; try { Object cipherSuite = SSLParamsgetCipherSuite(); ld = new LDAPConnection( new LDAPSSLSocketFactory("crysecSSLSSLSocket", cipherSuite)); ldconnect( "localhost", 636 ); ldauthenticate( 3, "uid=bjensen,ou=People,o=airiuscom", "hifalutin" ); } catch ( LDAPException e ) { Systemoutprintln( e ); }
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In this case an SSL session was established, and then the client used simple password authentication It was safe to pass the password over the wire because the session was encrypted When the client called ldconnect, the SSLava classes started SSL negotiations with the server The server sent a certi cate to assert its identity However, the client
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