C H A P T E R in Java

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t this point you know how to write LDAP clients that perform most of the basic operations You can write clients that search, add, modify, and delete entries in the directory You probably want most users to be able to make changes to only a subset of records, if any, rather than to the entire directory To control access to the directory and restrict the permissions to add, modify, and delete entries, you can set up access control lists in the directory server When LDAP clients authenticate to the server, the directory server can then determine whether or not the client is allowed to add, modify, or delete a particular entry You may also want to prevent outsiders from eavesdropping on communications between your LDAP clients and the directory server You can con gure the LDAP client and the directory server to communicate over a secure network connection In this chapter you will learn how to set up access control lists in your directory You will also learn the different methods of authentication Finally, you will learn how to set up communication over Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
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No Standards for Access Control
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Access control in LDAP is an area not yet covered by a standards document, and each server vendor has its own way of expressing and con guring the rights that users have to directory entries A working group in the IETF is developing a standard syntax for access control, as well as a protocol for querying the access rights that are applicable to a directory entry, but it will probably be years before LDAP servers from different vendors can exchange access control information Neither Novell Directory Services (NDS) nor Microsoft s Active Directory allows you to con gure or query the state of access control over LDAP Both require
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the use of proprietary APIs and protocols, or special administration tools, to view and update access control on the directory tree OpenLDAP uses the same mechanism that the University of Michigan LDAP server used to de ne access rights: access control statements in a server con guration le Netscape Directory Server stores access control instructions (ACIs) inside the directory itself Every entry can have a set of rules that de ne an ACI for that entry An ACI appears as an attribute in the entry like any other one, so it can be retrieved over LDAP by searching, or it can be added, updated, or deleted with an LDAP modify operation An ACI can appear in an LDIF le for import into a server, and it can be transmitted to another server during replication In this chapter we will take a closer look at how this type of access control works and can be con gured Although the syntax for expressing ACIs in Netscape Directory Server is different from the syntax that is currently under discussion in the IETF, the functionality is similar The basic model for hierarchical access control evaluation described in the next section is valid for most directories, including those that do not store ACIs in the directory entries themselves
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An entry may have no ACIs, one ACI, or many ACIs ACIs allow or deny permissions to entries When the directory server processes an incoming request for that entry, the server uses the ACIs for the entry to determine whether or not the LDAP client has permission to perform the requested operation An ACI on an entry affects all the entries in the directory tree that are beneath that entry For example, an ACI on the o=airiuscom entry in the sample directory provided on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book affects all entries under that entry, including ou=Groups, o=airiuscom and uid=bjensen, ou=People, o=airiuscom If one ACI allows access to an entry and another ACI denies access, the ACI that denies access takes precedence For example, suppose an LDAP client attempts to write to the ou=Groups, o=airiuscom entry If an ACI on o=airiuscom denies write permission but an ACI on ou=Groups, o=airiuscom allows write permission, the server complies with the former ACI, which denies permission, since deny overrides allow An ACI speci es the following information: The entry (or group of entries) and the attributes affected by the ACI The permissions that are allowed or denied for the entry (for example, read or write permission) The bind rule, which identi es the LDAP client authenticating to the server and the means of authenticating to the server
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