Creating a DatagramSocket in Java

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531 Creating a DatagramSocket
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A DatagramSocket can be used to both send and receive packets Each DatagramSocket binds to a port on the local machine, which is used for addressing packets The port number need not match the port number of the remote machine, but if the application is a UDP server, it will usually choose a specific port number If the DatagramSocket is intended to be a client, and doesn't need to bind to a specific port number, a blank constructor can be specified Constructors To create a client DatagramSocket, the following constructor is used: DatagramSocket() throws javanetSocketException To create a server Datagram Socket, the following constructor is used, which takes as a parameter the port to which the UDP service will be bound: DatagramSocket(int port) throws javanetSocketException Although rarely used, there is a third constructor for DatagramSocket, introduced in JDK11 If a machine is known by several IP addresses (referred to as multihomed), you can specify the IP address and port to which a UDP service should be bound It takes as parameters the port to which the UDP service will be bound, as well as the InetAddress of the service This constructor is: DatagramSocket (int port, InetAddress addr) throws javanetSocketException
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532 Using a DatagramSocket
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DatagramSocket is used to receive incoming UDP packets and to send outgoing UDP packets It provides methods to send and receive packets, as well as to specify a timeout value when nonblocking I/O is being used, to inspect and modify maximum UDP packet sizes, and to close the socket
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Methods
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void close() closes a socket, and unbinds it from the local port void connect(InetAddress remote_addr int remote_port) restricts
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access to the specified remote address and port The designation is a misnomer, as UDP doesn't actually create a "connection" between one machine and another However, if this method is used, it causes exceptions to be thrown if an attempt is made to send packets to, or read packets from, any other host and port than those specified void disconnect() disconnects the DatagramSocket and removes any restrictions imposed on it by an earlier connect operation InetAddress getInetAddress() returns the remote address to which the socket is connected, or null if no such connection exists int getPort() returns the remote port to which the socket is connected, or 1 if no such connection exists InetAddress getLocalAddress() returns the local address to which the socket is bound int getLocalPort() returns the local port to which the socket is bound int getReceiveBufferSize() throws javanetSocketException returns the maximum buffer size used for incoming UDP packets int getSendBufferSize() throws javanetSocketException returns the maximum buffer size used for outgoing UDP packets int getSoTimeout() throws javanetSocketException returns the value of the timeout socket option This value is used to determine the number of milliseconds a read operation will block before throwing a javaioInterruptedIOException By default, this value will be zero, indicating that blocking I/O will be used void receive(DatagramPacket packet) throws javaioIOException reads a UDP packet and stores the contents in the specified packet The address and port
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fields of the packet will be overwritten with the sender address and port fields, and the length field of the packet will contain the length of the original packet, which can be less than the size of the packet's byte-array If a timeout value hasn't been specified by using DatagramSocketsetSoTimeout(int duration), this method will block indefinitely If a timeout value has been specified, a javaioInterruptedIOException will be thrown if the time is exceeded void send(DatagramPacket packet) throws javaioIOException sends a UDP packet, represented by the specified packet parameter void setReceiveBufferSize(int length) throws javanet SocketException sets the maximum buffer size used for incoming UDP packets Whether the specified length will be adhered to is dependent on the operating system void setSendBufferSize(int length) throws javanetSocketException sets the maximum buffer size used for outgoing UDP packets Whether the specified length will be adhered to is dependent on the operating system void setSoTimeout(int duration) throws javanetSocket Exception sets the value of the timeout socket option This value is the number of milliseconds a read operation will block before throwing a javaioInterruptedIOException
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