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Table 231 Access Rights on the Windows File System (continued)
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Right WriteData Description
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Speci es the right to open and write to a le or folder This does not include the right to open and write le system attributes, extended le system attributes, or access and audit rules Speci es the right to open and write extended le system attributes to a folder or le This does not include the ability to write data, attributes, or access and audit rules
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Classes
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The namespace SystemSecurityAccessControl contains numerous classes for the administration of rights (ACLs) For each kind of resource whose ACLs can be administered, the namespace AccessControl offers one class derived from SystemSecurityAccessControlObjectSecurity For example, SystemSecurityAccessControl FileSecurity is used to read and process the ACLs of a le in the le system Figure 231 shows these classes in the inheritance tree of the NET class library The other resources indicated there (for example, Active Directory) cannot yet be called via Get-Acl A direct call via the NET class library, however, is possible
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Members of the Class Object Security
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The basic class ObjectSecurity derives, among others, the following members, so that they are provided in all subordinate classes:
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GetOwner() Displays the owner of the resource SetOwner() Sets the owner of the resource GetAccessRules() Displays a list of ACEs The return value has the type AuthorizationRuleCollection The contained
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objects are dependent on the resource type (for example, FileSystemAccessRule or RegistryAccessRule)
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GetAuditRules()
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Displays the entries of the system ACL Indicates, whether the ACL can Delivers the ACL as an
(SACL)
IsSddlConversionSupported
be expressed in SDDL
GetSecurityDescriptorSddlForm()
SDDL string
23 SECURITY SETTINGS
Figure 231 Inheritance hierarchy of the classes used for the saving of the ACL
Resource Classes
Throughout the whole NET class library, you will nd classes that possess a method GetAccessControl() and display an object derived from the class ObjectSecurity (see Table 232)
23 Security Settings
Table 232 Security Classes for Different Resources
Enumeration Resource Class
SystemIO File SystemIO Directory SystemIO FileInfo SystemIO DirectoryInfo MicrosoftWin32 RegistryKey
Class for ACL
FileSystemSecurity
Class for ACE
FileSystemAccessRule
for Rights
FileSystemRights
DirectorySecurity
FileSystemAccessRule
FileSystemRights
FileSystemSecurity
FileSystemAccessRule
FileSystemRights
DirectorySecurity
FileSystemAccessRule
FileSystemRights
RegistrySecurity
RegistryAccessRule
RegistryRights
User Accounts and SIDs
The namespace SystemSecurityAccessControl uses classes from SystemSecurityPrincipal to present control holders (users and groups) SystemSecurityPrincipal supports the two indicators known for control holders in Windows:
Account name (for example, ITVisions\hs) via the class
SystemSecurityPrincipalNTAccount
Security Identi er (for example, S-1-5-21-565061207-32329480681095265983-500) via the class SystemSecurityPrincipal
SecurityIdenti er
Reading ACLs
Get-Acl provides instances of the following NET classes, depending on the resource type:
SystemSecurityAccessControlDirectorySecurity (for
directories)
SystemSecurityAccessControlFileSecurity (for les)
Reading ACLs
SystemSecurityAccessControlRegistrySecurity
(for
registry keys)
Get-Acl expects as a parameter the path of the resource whose ACL will be displayed, as follows: Get-Acl hklm:/software/wwwIT-visionsde Get-Acl j:\projects Get-Acl j:\projects\contentcsv
Standard output is executed with Format-Table The output with Format-List is obvious, and the output is thus easier to read Figure 232 demonstrates the application of Get-Acl to a directory in the le system Figure 233 shows the same ACL in Windows Explorer
NOTE Note that Access is not an attribute of the NET class ObjectSecurity; instead it is a PowerShell code property that calls GetAccessRules() internally The return value is in both cases an AuthorizationRuleCollection
23 SECURITY SETTINGS
Figure 232 Fetching an ACL
23 Security Settings
Figure 233 Actual settings
Reading ACEs
If you want to take a closer look at the single ACEs of a system module, you should iterate via the ACL yourself The list of the type AuthorizationRuleCollection displayed by Access or GetAccessRules() contains, as far as the le system is concerned, objects of the type FileSystemAccessRule These objects, in turn, contain the following attributes:
IdentityReference
Subject (user or group) holding access
control
FileSystemRights Rights AccessControlType Control type (allowed or denied) IsInherited Indicates, whether the rule is inherited InheritanceFlags Indicates the kind of downward derivation
Reading ACEs
User accounts can be expressed in two ways: in clear text or via SIDs When you use GetAccessRules(), you have to indicate how you want to view the user: [SystemSecurityPrincipalNTAccount] (clear text) or [SystemSecurityPrincipalSecurityIdenti er] (SID) Before this, the method has two parameters that enable you to control which rules you want to look at: the rules set explicitly on the object ( rst parameter) and the inherited rules (second parameter) Explicit ACEs always hold the rst place in the list Code property access is equivalent to GetAccessRules($true, $true, [SystemSecurityPrincipalNTAccount]) If you want to get other information, you have to use GetAccessRules() explicitly In Listing 231, the second output of the list (see Figure 234) shows only the inherited rules in SID form Listing 231 Display Details from the ACEs
$a = Get-Acl "j:\projects\" $aces =$aaccess # or: $aces =$aGetAccessRules($true, $true, [SystemSecurityPrincipalNTAccount]) Write-Host "All ACEs, account name form:" -F yellow foreach ($ace in $aces) { write-host $aceIdentityReferenceToString() " has " $ACEFileSystemRights $ACEAccessControlType " Inherited " $ACEIsInherited } # -------$a = Get-Acl j:\projects $aces =$aGetAccessRules($true, $false, [SystemSecurityPrincipalSecurityIdenti er]) Write-Host "Only explicit rules, SID form:" -F yellow foreach ($ace in $aces) { write-host $aceIdentityReferenceToString() " has " $ACEFileSystemRights $ACEAccessControlType " Inherited " $ACEIsInherited }