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strings with the names of all directory attributes Values points to ValuesCollection, which in turn contains single object volumes of the type PropertyValueCollection This is necessary because each directory attribute can have several values The ValuesCollection represents the volume of values of all directory attributes; PropertyValueCollection, on the other hand, stands for the single values of a directory attribute The attribute Item(ATTRIBUTNAME) delivers the respective PropertyValueCollection for an attribute name that is to be transferred as parameter
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WARNING Access to the attribute Values generally is not executed because usually the values are needed without the attribute names The common process is either the direct use of Item(), when the attribute name is known, or the iteration via PropertyNames and, subsequently, the use of Item(), if all attributes will be listed with their respective values
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SystemDirectoryServices and the ADSI Adapter
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Each DirectoryEntry object (see Figure 172) owns an attribute named NativeObject, which refers to the respective object This enables a quick change to classic ADSI programming
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Children NativeObject Parent SchemaEntry PropertyNames KeysCollection IADs COM-Object
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DirectoryEntries
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Item Add() Find SchemaFilter
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Figure 172 Object model of the classes in the namespace SystemDirectoryservices, Part 1
17 DIRECTORY SERVICES
Class DirectoryEntries
The class DirectoryEntries supports the interface IEnumerable and thus enables the enumeration of its members via a foreach loop The volume can be ltered by specifying a volume of directory service classes via SchemaNameCollection, which will be selected The method Find() displays a DirectoryEntry object If the object speci ed by name does not exist in this container, there is an InvalidOperationException The class DirectoryEntries cannot be instanced You can retrieve a DirectoryEntries object only via the attribute Children of a DirectoryEntry object
Class for the Execution of Search Queries
Search queries have been executed in ADSI via ActiveX Data Objects (ADO) (that is, an OLEDB provider) In NET, there are now proper classes for the execution of LDAP search queries, which are independent of ADONET and can access the LDAP implementation of Windows directly Whereas the OLEDB provider supports LDAP query syntax and SQL commands for ADSI queries, classes built in to the NET class library can process only LDAP query syntax
17 Directory Services
With the OLEDB provider and with the NET classes, only LDAPcapable directory services can be queried The LDAP query syntax is a standard ([RFC1960] and [RFC2254]), and therefore nothing other than the COM implementation (see Figure 173)
DirectorySearcher SearchRoot DirectoryEntry PropertyNames SearchResult Collection GetDirectoryEntry() KeysCollection
FindAll()
Item FindOne() SearchResults ValuesCollection Values Sort SortOption Item Properties SearchScope SearchScope Item StringCollection Item Results PropertyCollection Results PropertyValue Collection
String
PropertiesToLoad
Object
Figure 173 Object model of the class in the namespace System
Directoryservices, Part 2
Comparison of SystemDirectoryservices and ADSI
Table 171 shows that for many interfaces from classic ADSI there are no longer respective speci c classes in SystemDirectoryservices Table 171 SystemDirectoryservices versus ADSI
Directory Object Class in Active Directory ADSI in COM ADSI in NET (System Directoryservices)
Leaf classes Container classes Class User Class Computer Class Group N/A Any classes
Interface IADs Interface IADsContainer Interface IADsUser Interface IADsComputer Interface IADsGroup Class ADODBConnection Class ADODBRecordSet
Class DirectoryEntry Class DirectoryEntries N/A (DirectoryEntry) N/A (DirectoryEntry) N/A (DirectoryEntry) Class DirectorySearcher Class
SearchResultCollection
De ciencies in the ADSI Adapter
De ciencies in the ADSI Adapter
Microsoft performed a fundamental shift in direction regarding directory services programming between Release Candidate 1 and Release Candidate 2 of WPS This shift in direction was not only unexpected, it also led in the wrong direction; thus, this is the point where severe criticism toward Microsoft is appropriate Up to Release Candidate 1, you had to directly use a NET class from the NET namespace SystemDirectoryservices for these scripting jobs As mentioned previously, these classes are internally based on COM interfaces of ADSI, and in some cases you had access to these interfaces underlying the scripting Starting with Release Candidate 2, Microsoft intended to introduce a simpli cation with the proper WPS type [ADSI] The intention was good; the realization, however, was an absolute catastrophe There are six problems:
The built-in WPS type [ADSI] instances the type System DirectoryservicesDirectoryEntry, but offers only attributes and no methods of this class The methods are hidden by the WPS Adapter The created WPS object offers the methods of the underlying classic ADSI interfaces instead The important commandlet Get-Member shows neither one nor the other method Also in direct instancing of SystemDirectoryservices DirectoryEntry, the previously mentioned method chaos is effective The methods of the class SystemDirectoryservices DirectoryEntry are available only via the subobject PSBase DirectoryEntry objects cannot be processed in the WPS pipeline with the common commandlets Select-Object, Format-Table, and so forth Only the object-based style is possible