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Output
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You can access all properties and methods of NET objects that have been placed by an earlier commandlet in the pipeline Members of the objects can be used either via parameters of the commandlets (for example, in Sort-Object Length) or by an explicit reference to the recent pipeline object ($_) in a loop or condition (for example, Where-Object { $_Length -gt 40000 }) NOTE Not all sequences of commandlets make sense Some sequences aren t
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even valid A commandlet may expect certain kinds of input objects Therefore, you should use commandlets that can process any kind of entry object
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Output
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A regular commandlet should not create its own screen output, but should put a number of objects in the pipeline Only certain commandlets are prede ned to create an output, including the following:
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Out-Default Standard output according to WPS con guration (DotNetTypesFormatps1xml) Out-Host Same as Out-Default with additional option for
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pagewise output Out-Null Pipeline objects are not transferred Format-Wide Two-column list (see Figure 33) Format-List Detailed list (see Figure 34) Format-Table Table (see Figure 35)
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NOTE Unfortunately, after the beta versions, Microsoft removed some commandlets that offered an output on a higher abstraction level Therefore, the following commandlets are not available in WPS 10:
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3 PIPELINING
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Windows Forms data grid (Out-Grid) Excel chart (Out-Excel) E-mail (Out-Email) Column diagram (Out-Chart)
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However, Microsoft has announced that at least a commandlet named OutGridView will be available in WPS 20
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3
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Pipelining
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Figure 33 Format-Wide output
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Figure 34 Format-List output
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Output
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Figure 35 Format-Table output
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Standard Output
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When you do not name a format function at the end of a pipeline, WPS automatically uses the commandlet Out-Default Out-Default uses a prede ned output standard that is stored in DotNetTypesFormat ps1xml in the installation directory of WPS There, you can get the information that, for example, type SystemDiagnosticsProcess produces an output in an eight-column table (see Figure 36)
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Pagewise Output
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3 PIPELINING
Often, output is too long to be presented on one screen page Some output is even longer than the standard buffer of the WPS window (for example, Get-Command | Get-Help) You enforce the pagewise output with the parameter p in the Out-Host commandlet In this case, Out-Host has to be written as follows:
Get-Command | Get-Help | Out-Host -p
3
Pipelining
Figure 36 Clipping from the description of the standard output for type
SystemDiagnosticsProcess in DotNetTypesFormatps1xml
Restricting the Output
The output commands allow speci cations of object properties to be presented For example
Get-Process | Format-Table -p id,processname,workingset
Output
creates a table of processes with process ID, name of processes, and use of space Names of properties can also be abbreviated with placeholder *, as follows:
Get-Process | Format-Table -p id,processn*,working*
NOTE You can get the same output when you use Select-Object:
Get-Process | Select-Object id, processname, workingset | Format-Table
Output of Single Values
To display speci c text or the content of a variable, you just have to write this on the console (see Figure 37) Alternatively, you can use the commandlets Write-Host, Write-Warn, and Write-Error The commandlets Write-Warn and Write-Error create highlighted output With Write-Host, you can specify colors:
Write-Host "Hello Holger" -foregroundcolor red -backgroundcolor white
3 PIPELINING
Figure 37 Output of constants and variables
3
Pipelining
To mix literals and variables in an output, you must either link them with +
$a + " can be reached at " + $b + " This information is dated: " + $c + ""
or integrate the variables directly in the string In contrast to other languages, WPS evaluates the string and searches for he dollar sign ($) (variable resolution):
"$a can be reached at $b This information is dated: $c"
You can also use placeholders and format markers common in NET (for example, d = date in the long version) In addition, include the parameter f after the string Based on the format possibilities, this option is the most powerful:
"{0} can be reached at {1} This information is dated: {2:d}" -f $a, $b, $c
The following list summarizes the three equivalent possibilities:
$a = "Holger Schwichtenberg" $b = "hs@windows-scriptingcom" $c = get-Date # possibility 1 $a + " can be reached at " + $b + " This information is dated: " + $c + "" # possibility 2 "$a can be reached at $b This information is dated: $c" # possibility 3 "{0} can be reached at {1} This information is dated: {2:D}" -f $a, $b, $c