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To test this class, we might write code such as the following All the @Test marked methods will be run, but the order cannot be defined We could use the setUp() and tearDown() methods to prepare the environment for the whole set of tests, but we won t be needing them in this particular example
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package comfkerekimvpprojectclient; // imports public class KeyValueMapTest { @Before public void setUp() throws Exception { } @After public void tearDown() throws Exception { }
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A first test would verify whether a KeyValueMap, initialized with an empty string, is empty8
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@Test public void testKeyValueMap() { final KeyValueMap kvm0 = new KeyValueMap(""); assertTrue(kvm0isEmpty()); }
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We could then move on to testing KeyValueMap objects, initialized with one or more key=value pairs, to check if they have the correct sizes and contents9
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@Test public void testKeyValueMapString() { final KeyValueMap kvm1 = new KeyValueMap("lincoln=1865"); assertEquals(1, kvm1size()); final KeyValueMap kvm2 = new KeyValueMap("lincoln=1865&darwin=1882"); assertEquals(2, kvm2size()); assertTrue(kvm2containsKey("lincoln")); 8 Some people prefer naming the test so it says what it will test (and possibly even what results it would expect) such as testKeyValueMapWithEmptyString() and testKeyValueMapWithEmptyStringShouldReturnEmpty() I go for shorter names, but to each his own poison! 9 There are two Assert classes; see http://stackoverflowcom/questions/291003/differencesbetween-2-junit-assert-classes for more on picking one
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13 Testing Your GWT Application
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assertTrue(kvm2containsKey("darwin")); assertEquals("1865", kvm2get("lincoln")); assertEquals("1882", kvm2get("darwin")); }
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The toString() method also requires some tests Note that we don t check the complete string, because we cannot be sure about in which order the keys will be returned (And, in fact, we do not actually care about the order) Be careful not to write fragile tests, which fail even when we haven t changed anything that should impact them10
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@Test public void testToString() { final KeyValueMap kvm0 = new KeyValueMap(""); assertEquals("", kvm0toString()); final KeyValueMap kvm1 = new KeyValueMap("lincoln=1865"); assertEquals("lincoln=1865", kvm1toString()); final KeyValueMap kvm2 = new KeyValueMap( "lincoln=1865&darwin=1882&einstein=1955"); final String kvmst2 = kvm2toString(); assertTrue(kvmst2contains("lincoln=1865")); assertTrue(kvmst2contains("darwin=1882")); assertTrue(kvmst2contains("einstein=1955")); assertTrue(kvmst2contains("\n")); } }
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Running the code (with Eclipse, select the test directory, right-click it, and select Run As, and then JUnit Test) produces the much desired green bar that shows all tests ran as hoped (See Figure 131) If you had more tests in the directory, they would have been executed as well You can create a suite of your own,11 but the automatic way (running all @Test annotated methods) is easier If you changed, say, the first lines in testKeyValueMapString to read (note the wrong size check) as follows:
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public void testKeyValueMapString() { final KeyValueMap kvm1 = new KeyValueMap("lincoln=1865"); assertEquals(5, kvm1size());
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then the test run would have produced a different result, a red bar, and an explanation of the failed test, showing what was expected and what was actually seen See Figure 132 for such a failure
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10 See http://xunitpatternscom/Fragile%20Testhtml for a discussion on this; in particular, the Sensitive Equality section directly applies to our example 11 See http://junitorg/apidocs/junit/framework/TestSuitehtml for an explanation of Test Suites
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Unit Testing with JUnit
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Figure 131 If all tests run as desired, you ll get a green bar, plus a
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report showing which tests were run, and some timing details
Figure 132 A wrong test produces a red bar instead and an explanation
of the failed condition
Other JUnit methods of interest (and the names are quite self-documented) include
assertArrayEquals(), assertNull() and assertNotNull(), assertSame() and assertNotSame(), and assertTrue() and
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13 Testing Your GWT Application
assertFalse(), among others If you wanted to test an exception, you could use fail() as per the following pattern12
Try { // do something that should raise an exception fail(); } catch (TheExpectedException e) { // OK, this should be the case } catch (Exception e) { // oops, an unexpected exception fail(); }
If the code doesn t produce the expected exception, or if it produces an unexpected one, the fail() calls will produce a red bar However, a question pops up: How thorough was our test Let s get to this before moving on to more complex cases
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There are several measures of to which degree you have tested your code, and the most basic one is called Statement Coverage, which answers the question Has every sentence in the program been executed at least once Statement coverage is presented as a percentage, from 0% (you haven t actually tested anything!) to 100% (all the parts in your code have been exercised at least once)13 For Eclipse GWT programming, you can use the EclEmma plugin, which produces a visual map showing with colors what parts of your tested code were or weren t executed, after any test run14 Let s apply it to the test we just developed; was it complete, did we miss anything After installing the plugin, a new option appears in the menu Select your test directory, right-click it, and pick Coverage As, JUnit Test, and you ll get a report showing how much of your code was run, and a view of the source code highlighting in green the executed parts, and in the red the missed ones See Figure 133 15
12 In JUnit 4 (but not with GWTTestCase) you could also write @Test(expected= TheExpectedException) and do away with the trycatch block 13 Though this is not a sufficient condition to ensure testing thoroughness, it should be clear that if your tests haven t managed to execute a given sentence, that particular sentence could actually be anything, and you wouldn t notice Not having 100% coverage permits errors; however, don t read this as 100% coverage guarantees no errors ! 14 See wwweclemmaorg for more on this 15 Note that depending on the current versions of the plugin, you might have to patch it according to instructions on http://codegooglecom/webtoolkit/doc/latest/DevGuideTestingCoveragehtml This may change in the future, so check it out carefully before proceeding