21: The Common Language Infrastructure in C#

Generation QR-Code in C# 21: The Common Language Infrastructure
21: The Common Language Infrastructure
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SUMMARY
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This chapter described many new terms and acronyms that are important to understanding the context under which C# programs run The preponderance of three-letter acronyms can be confusing Table 212 provides a summary list of the terms and acronyms that are part of the CLI
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TABLE 212: Common C#-Related Acronyms
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Acronym
QR Code Drawer In Visual Basic .NET
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Definition
Print Barcode In C#
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Description
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NET
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None
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Microsoft s implementation of the entire CLI stack Includes the CLR, CIL, and various languages, all of which are CLS-compliant The portion of the CLI specification that defines the collection, threading, console, and other base classes necessary to build virtually all programs A programming language Note that separate from the CLI standard there is a C# Language Specification, also ratified by the ECMA and ISO standards bodies The language of the CLI specification that defines the instructions for the code executable on implementations of the CLI This is sometimes also referred to as IL or Microsoft IL (MSIL) to distinguish it from other intermediate languages (To indicate that it is a standard broader than Microsoft, CIL is preferred over MSIL and even IL) The specification that defines the intermediate language, base classes, and behavioral characteristics which enable implementers to create Virtual Execution Systems and compilers in which source languages are interoperable on top of a common execution environment Microsoft s implementation of the runtime, as defined in the CLI specification
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Base Class Library
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None
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CIL (IL)
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Common Intermediate Language
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Common Language Infrastructure
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Common Language Runtime
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TABLE 212: Common C#-Related Acronyms (Continued)
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Acronym
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Description
Common Language Specification
The portion of the CLI specification that defines the core subset of features which source languages must support in order to be executable on runtimes implemented according to the CLI specification A standard generally implemented by CLI-compliant languages that defines the representation and behavior of types that the language exposes visibly outside a module It includes concepts for how types can be combined to form new types The class library that comprises Microsoft s NET Framework It includes Microsoft s implementation of the BCL as well as a large library of classes for such things as web development, distributed communication, database access, rich client user interface development, and a host of others An agent that manages the execution of a program that is compiled for the CLI
Common Type System
NET Framework Class Library
VES (runtime)
Virtual Execution System
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Downloading and Installing the C# Compiler and the CLI Platform
O COMPILE AND RUN C# programs, it is necessary to install a version of
the compiler and the CLI platform
Microsoft s NET
The predominant CLI platform is Microsoft NET and this is the platform of choice for development on Microsoft Windows
The minimum installation that includes the compiler and the NET
Framework with C# 20 syntax support is the redistributable package for the NET Framework 20 or higher This is available at http:// msdnmicrosoftcom/en-us/netframework/defaultaspx
For a rich IDE that includes IntelliSense and support for project files,
install a version of the Visual Studio IDE This includes Visual C# Express, which is available free at http://labmsdnmicrosoftcom/ express
Appendix A: Downloading and Installing the C# Compiler
For command-line compilation, regardless of a Visual Studio install or only the runtime, you must set the PATH environment variable to include the C# compiler, CSCEXE
Setting Up the Compiler Path with Microsoft NET If Visual Studio NET is installed on your computer, open the command prompt from the Start menu by selecting All Programs, Microsoft Visual Studio NET, Visual Studio Tools, Visual Studio Command Prompt This command prompt places CSCEXE in the path to be available for execution from any directory Without Visual Studio NET installed, no special compiler command prompt item appears in the Start menu Instead, you need to reference the full compiler pathname explicitly or add it to the path The compiler is located at %Windir%\MicrosoftNET\Framework\<version>, where <version> is the version of the NET Framework (v103705, v114322, v2050727, and so on) and %Windir% is the environment variable that points to the location of the Windows directory To add this location to the path use Set PATH=%PATH%;%Windir%\MicrosoftNET\Framework\<version>, again substituting the value of <version> appropriately Output A1 provides an example
OUTPUT A1: