26: string Methods in Visual C#

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TABLE 26: string Methods
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Statement
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bool StartsWith( string value) bool EndsWith( string value) string ToLower() string ToUpper() string string string string Trim() Trim() TrimEnd() TrimStart()
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Example
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string lastName bool isPhd = lastNameEndsWith("PhD"); bool isDr = lastNameStartsWith("Dr"); string severity = "warning"; // Display the severity in uppercase SystemConsoleWriteLine(severityToUpper()); // Remove any whitespace at the start or end username = usernameTrim();
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string Replace( string oldValue, string newValue)
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string filename; // Remove 's altogether from the string filename = filenameReplace(" ", "");;
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2: Data Types New Line
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When writing out a new line, the exact characters for the new line will depend on the operating system on which you are executing On Microsoft Windows platforms, the new line is the combination of both the \r and \n charters, while a single \n is used on Unix One way to overcome the discrepancy between platforms is simply to use SystemConsole WriteLine() in order to output a blank line Another approach, virtually essential when you are not outputting to the console yet still require execution on multiple platforms, is to use SystemEnvironmentNewLine In other words, SystemConsoleWriteLine("Hello World") and System ConsoleWrite("Hello World" + SystemEnvironmentNewLine) are equivalent
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ADVANCED TOPIC C# Properties Technically, the Length member referred to in the following section is not actually a method, as indicated by the fact that there are no parentheses following its call Length is a property of string, and C# syntax allows access to a property as though it were a member variable (known in C# as a field) In other words, a property has the behavior of special methods called setters and getters, but the syntax for accessing that behavior is that of a field Examining the underlying CIL implementation of a property reveals that it compiles into two methods: set_<PropertyName> and get_<PropertyName> Neither of these, however, is directly accessible from C# code, except through the C# property constructs See 5 for more detail on properties
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String Length
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To determine the length of a string you use a string member called Length This particular member is called a read-only property As such, it can t be set, nor does calling it require any parameters Listing 213 demonstrates how to use the Length property, and Output 211 shows the results
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More Fundamental Types
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Listing 213: Using string s Length Member
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class PalindromeLength { static void Main() { string palindrome; SystemConsoleWrite("Enter a palindrome: "); palindrome = SystemConsoleReadLine(); SystemConsoleWriteLine( "The palindrome, \"{0}\" is {1} characters", palindrome, palindromeLength); } }
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OUTPUT 211:
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Enter a palindrome: Never odd or even The palindrome, "Never odd or even" is 17 characters
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The length for a string cannot be set directly; it is calculated from the number of characters in the string Furthermore, the length of a string cannot change because a string is immutable
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The key characteristic of the string type is the fact that it is immutable A string variable can be assigned an entirely new value, but for performance reasons, there is no facility for modifying the contents of a string It is not possible, therefore, to convert a string to all uppercase letters It is trivial to create a new string that is composed of an uppercase version of the old string, but the old string is not modified in the process Consider Listing 214 as an example
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Listing 214: Error; string Is Immutable
class Uppercase { static void Main() { string text; SystemConsoleWrite("Enter text: "); text = SystemConsoleReadLine();
2: Data Types
// UNEXPECTED: Does not convert text to uppercase textToUpper(); SystemConsoleWriteLine(text); } }
Output 212 shows the results of Listing 214
OUTPUT 212:
Enter text: This is a test of the emergency broadcast system This is a test of the emergency broadcast system
At a glance, it would appear that textToUpper() should convert the characters within text to uppercase However, strings are immutable and, therefore, textToUpper() will make no such modification Instead, textToUpper() returns a new string that needs to be saved into a variable or passed to SystemConsoleWriteLine() directly The corrected code is shown in Listing 215, and its output is shown in Output 213