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int number; Func<string, bool> expression = text => intTryParse(text, out number); if (expression("1")) { // ERROR: Use of unassigned local variable SystemConsoleWrite(number); } int number; Func<int, bool> isFortyTwo = x => 42 == (number = x); if (isFortyTwo(42)) { // ERROR: Use of unassigned local variable SystemConsoleWrite(number); }
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The compiler s flow analysis is unable to detect initialization of local variables in lambda expressions
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12: Delegates and Lambda Expressions
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ADVANCED TOPIC Lambda Expression and Anonymous Method Internals Lambda expressions (and anonymous methods) are not an intrinsic construct within the CLR Rather, the C# compiler generates the implementation at compile time Lambda expressions provide a language construct for an inline-declared delegate pattern The C# compiler, therefore, generates the implementation code for this pattern so that the compiler automatically writes the code instead of the developer writing it manually Given the earlier listings, therefore, the C# compiler generates CIL code that is similar to the C# code shown in Listing 1220
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Listing 1220: C# Equivalent of CIL Generated by the Compiler for Lambda Expressions
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class DelegateSample { // static void Main(string[] args) { int i; int[] items = new int[5]; for (i=0; i<itemsLength; i++) { ConsoleWrite("Enter an integer:"); items[i] = intParse(ConsoleReadLine()); }
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BubbleSort(items, DelegateSample__AnonymousMethod_00000000); for (i = 0; i < itemsLength; i++) { ConsoleWriteLine(items[i]); } } private static bool __AnonymousMethod_00000000( int first, int second) {
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return first < second; } }
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In this example, an anonymous method is converted into a separately declared static method that is then instantiated as a delegate and passed as a parameter
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Outer Variables Local variables declared outside a lambda expression (including parameters), but captured (accessed) within the lambda expression, are outer variables of that lambda this is also an outer variable Outer variables captured by anonymous functions live on until after the anonymous function s delegate is destroyed In Listing 1221, it is relatively trivial to use an outer variable to count how many times BubbleSort() performs a comparison Output 122 shows the results of this listing
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Listing 1221: Using an Outer Variable in a Lambda Expression
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class DelegateSample { // static void Main(string[] args) { int i; int[] items = new int[5]; int comparisonCount=0; for (i=0; i<itemsLength; i++) { ConsoleWrite("Enter an integer:"); items[i] = intParse(ConsoleReadLine()); } BubbleSort(items, (int first, int second) => { comparisonCount++; return first < second;
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12: Delegates and Lambda Expressions
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} ); for (i = 0; i < itemsLength; i++) { ConsoleWriteLine(items[i]); } ConsoleWriteLine("Items were compared {0} times", comparisonCount); } }
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OUTPUT 122:
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Enter Enter Enter Enter Enter 5 4 3 2 1 Items an an an an an integer:5 integer:1 integer:4 integer:2 integer:3
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were compared 10 times
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comparisonCount appears outside the lambda expression and is incremented
inside it After calling the BubbleSort() method, comparisonCount is printed out to the console As this code demonstrates, the C# compiler takes care of generating CIL code that shares comparisonCount between the anonymous method and the call site, even though there is no parameter to pass comparisonCount within the anonymous delegate, nor within the BubbleSort() method Given the sharing of the variable, it will not be garbage-collected until after the delegate that references it is garbage-collected In other words, the lifetime of the captured variable is at least as long as that of the longest-lived delegate object capturing it
ADVANCED TOPIC Outer Variable CIL Implementation The CIL code generated by the C# compiler for outer variables is more complex than the code for a simple anonymous method Listing 1222 shows the C# equivalent of the CIL code used to implement outer variables
Lambda Expressions
Listing 1222: C# Equivalent of CIL Code Generated by Compiler for Outer Variables
class DelegateSample { // private sealed class __LocalsDisplayClass_00000001 { public int comparisonCount; public bool __AnonymousMethod_00000000( int first, int second) { comparisonCount++; return first < second; } } static void Main(string[] args) { int i; LocalsDisplayClass_00000001 locals = new __LocalsDisplayClass_00000001(); localscomparisonCount=0; int[] items = new int[5]; for (i=0; i<itemsLength; i++) { ConsoleWrite("Enter an integer:"); items[i] = intParse(ConsoleReadLine()); } BubbleSort(items, locals__AnonymousMethod_00000000); for (i = 0; i < itemsLength; i++) { ConsoleWriteLine(items[i]); } ConsoleWriteLine("Items were compared {0} times", localscomparisonCount); } }
Notice that the captured local variable is never passed anywhere and is never copied anywhere Rather, the captured local variable (comparisonCount) is a single variable whose lifetime we have extended by implementing it as an instance field rather than as a local variable All references to the local variable are rewritten to be references to the field