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42 'A' 314F 42 0x00A61234 0x00A612C0
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// int number1 = 42; char letter = 'A'; float pi = 314F; int number2 = number1; //
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using SystemIO;
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Figure 82: Reference Types Point to the Heap
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Dereferencing a reference type to access its value involves an extra hop However, a reference type does not require the same memory copy of the data that a value type does, resulting in circumstances when reference types are more efficient When assigning one reference type variable to another reference type variable, only a memory copy of the address occurs, and as such, the memory copy required by a reference type is always the size of the address itself (A 32-bit processor will copy 32 bits and a 64-bit processor will copy 64 bits, and so on) Obviously, not copying the data would be faster than a value type s behavior if the data size is large Since reference types copy only the address of the data, two different variables can point to the same data, and changing the data through one variable will change the data for the other variable as well This happens both for assignment and for method calls Therefore, a method can affect the data of a reference type back at the caller Besides string and object, all the C# primitive types are value types Furthermore, numerous additional value types are provided within the framework It also is possible for developers to define their own value types that behave like user-defined primitives To define a custom value type, you use the same type of structure as you would to define classes and interfaces The key difference in syntax is simply that value types use the keyword struct, as shown in Listing 81
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Listing 81: Defining struct
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// Use keyword struct to declare a value type struct Angle { public Angle(int hours, int minutes, int seconds) { _Hours = hours; _Minutes = minutes; _Seconds = seconds; } public int Hours { get { return _Hours; } }
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private int _Hours; public int Minutes { get { return _Minutes; } } private int _Minutes; public int Seconds { get { return _Seconds; } } private int _Seconds; public Angle Move(int hours, int minutes, int seconds) { return new Angle( Hours + hours, Minutes + minutes Seconds + seconds) } } // Declaring a class - a reference type // (declaring it as a struct would create a value type // larger than 16 bytes) class Coordinate { public Angle Longitude { get { return _Longitude; } set { _Longitude = value; } } private Angle _Longitude; public Angle Latitude { get { return _Latitude; } set { _Latitude = value; } } private Angle _Latitude; }
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This listing defines Angle as a value type that stores the hours, minutes, and seconds of an angle, either longitude or latitude The resultant C# type is a struct
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Although nothing in the language requires it, a good guideline is for value types to be immutable: Once you have instantiated a value type, you should not be able to modify the same instance In scenarios where modification is desirable, you should create a new instance Listing 81 supplies a Move() method that doesn t modify the instance of Angle, but instead returns an entirely new instance
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Initializing structs In addition to properties and fields, structs may contain methods and constructors However, default (parameterless) constructors are not allowed Sometimes (for instance, when instantiating an array) a value type s constructor will not be called because all array memory is initialized with zeroes instead To avoid the inconsistency of default constructors being called only sometimes, C# prevents explicit definition of default constructors altogether Because the compiler s implementation of an instance field assignment at declaration time is to place the assignment into the type s constructor, C# prevents instance field assignment at declaration time as well (see Listing 82)
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