Primary Collection Classes The CopyTo() method provides the ability to convert the collection into in Visual C#

Paint PDF417 in Visual C# Primary Collection Classes The CopyTo() method provides the ability to convert the collection into
Primary Collection Classes The CopyTo() method provides the ability to convert the collection into
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an array The method includes an index parameter so that you can specify where to insert elements in the target array Note that to use the method you must initialize the array target with sufficient capacity, starting at the index, to contain all the elements in ICollection<T>
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Primary Collection Classes
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There are five key sets of collection classes, and they differ from each other in terms of how data is inserted, stored, and retrieved Each generic class is located in the SystemCollectionsGeneric namespace, and their nongeneric equivalents are in the SystemCollections namespace
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List Collections: List<T> The List<T> class has properties similar to an array The key difference is that these classes automatically expand as the number of elements increases (In contrast, an array size is constant) Furthermore, lists can shrink via explicit calls to TrimToSize() or Capacity (see Figure 162) These classes are categorized as list collections whose distinguishing functionality is that each element can be individually accessed by index, just like an array Therefore, you can set and access elements in the list collection classes using the index operator, where the index parameter value corresponds to the position of an element in the collection Listing 162 shows an example, and Output 161 shows the results
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Listing 162: Using List<T>
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using System; using SystemCollectionsGeneric; class Program { static void Main() { List<string> list = new List<string>(); // Lists automatically expand as elements // are added listAdd("Sneezy"); listAdd("Happy");
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16: Building Custom Collections
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listAdd("Dopey"); listAdd("Doc"); listAdd("Sleepy"); listAdd("Bashful"); listAdd("Grumpy"); listSort(); ConsoleWriteLine( "In alphabetical order {0} is the " + "first dwarf while {1} is the last", list[0], list[6]); listRemove("Grumpy"); } }
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OUTPUT 161:
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In alphabetical order Bashful is the first dwarf while Sneezy is the last
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C# is zero-index-based; therefore, index zero in Listing 162 corresponds to the first element and index 6 indicates the seventh element Retrieving elements by index does not involve a search It involves a quick and simple jump operation to a location in memory When you use the Add() method, elements maintain the order in which you added them Therefore, prior to the call to Sort() in Listing 162, "Sneezy" is first and "Grumpy" is last Although List<T> supports a Sort() method, nothing states that all list collections require such a method There is no support for automatic sorting of elements as they are added In other words, an explicit call to Sort() is required for the elements to be sorted (items must implement IComparable) To remove an element, you use the Remove() method To search List<T> for a particular element, you use the Contains(), IndexOf(), LastIndexOf(), and BinarySearch() methods The first three methods search through the array, starting at the first element (the last element for LastIndexOf()), and examine each element until the equivalent one is found The execution time for these algorithms is proportional to the number of elements searched before a hit occurs Be aware that the collection
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Primary Collection Classes
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Figure 162: List<> Class Diagrams
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classes do not require that all the elements within the collection are unique If two or more elements in the collection are the same, then IndexOf() returns the first index and LastIndexOf() returns the last index BinarySearch() uses a binary search algorithm and requires that the elements be sorted A useful feature of the BinarySearch() method is that if the element is not found, a negative integer is returned The bitwise
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16: Building Custom Collections
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complement (~) of this value is the index of the next element larger than the element being sought, or the total element count if there is no greater value This provides a convenient means to insert new values into the list at the specific location so as to maintain sorting (see Listing 163)
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Listing 163: Using the Bit Complement of the BinarySearch() Result
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using System; using SystemCollectionsGeneric; class Program { static void Main() { List<string> list = new List<string>(); int search; listAdd("public"); listAdd("protected"); listAdd("private"); listSort(); search = listBinarySearch("protected internal"); if (search < 0) { listInsert(~search, "protected internal"); } foreach (string accessModifier in list) { ConsoleWriteLine(accessModifier); } } }
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Beware that if the list is not first sorted, an element will not necessarily be found, even if it is in the list The results of Listing 163 appear in Output 162
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OUTPUT 162: