Output 49 shows the results of Listing 415 in C#

Encode Quick Response Code in C# Output 49 shows the results of Listing 415
Output 49 shows the results of Listing 415
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Output 49
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The program begins by passing the first command-line argument to DirectoryCountLines(), or by using the current directory if no argument was provided This method first iterates through all the files in the current directory and totals the source code lines for each file After each file in the directory, the code processes each subdirectory by passing the subdirectory back into the DirectoryCountLines() method, rerunning the method using the subdirectory The same process is repeated recursively through each subdirectory until no more directories remain to process Readers unfamiliar with recursion may find it cumbersome at first Regardless, it is often the simplest pattern to code, especially with hierarchical type data such as the filesystem However, although it may be the most readable, it is generally not the fastest implementation If performance becomes an issue, then developers should seek an alternate solution in place of a recursive implementation The choice generally hinges on balancing readability with performance
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Beginner Topic: Infinite Recursion Error
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A common programming error in recursive method implementations appears in the form of a stack overflow during program execution This usually happens because of infinite recursion, in which the method continually calls back on itself, never reaching a point that indicates the end of the recursion It is a good practice for programmers to review any method that uses recursion and verify that the recursion calls are finite
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Method Overloading
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Listing 415 called DirectoryCountLines(), which counted the lines of *cs files However, if you want to count code in *h /*cpp files or in *vb files, DirectoryCountLines() will not work Instead, you need a method that takes the file extension, but still keeps the existing method definition so that it handles *cs files by default All methods within a class must have a unique signature, and C# defines uniqueness by variation in the method name, parameter data types, or number of parameters This does not include method return data types; defining two methods that have only a different return data type will cause a compile error Method overloading occurs when a class has two or more methods with the same name and the parameter count and/or data types vary between the overloaded methods Method overloading is a type of operational polymorphism Polymorphism occurs when the same logical operation takes on many (poly) implementations (forms) because the data varies Calling WriteLine() and passing a format string along with some parameters is implemented differently than calling WriteLine() and specifying an integer However, logically, to the caller, the method takes care of writing the data and it is somewhat irrelevant how the internal implementation occurs Listing 416 provides an example, and Output 410 shows the results
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Listing 416 Returning All the Filenames, Given a Directory
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public static class LineCounter { public static void Main(string[] args) { int totalLineCount; if (argsLength > 1) { totalLineCount = DirectoryCountLines(args[0], args[1]); } if (argsLength > 0) { totalLineCount = DirectoryCountLines(args[0]); } else { totalLineCount = DirectoryCountLines(); } SystemConsoleWriteLine(totalLineCount); } static int DirectoryCountLines() { return DirectoryCountLines( DirectoryGetCurrentDirectory()); }
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static int DirectoryCountLines(string directory) { return DirectoryCountLines(directory, "*cs"); } static int DirectoryCountLines( string directory, string extension) { int lineCount = 0; foreach (string file in DirectoryGetFiles(directory, extension)) { lineCount += CountLines(file); } foreach (string subdirectory in DirectoryGetDirectories(directory)) { lineCount += DirectoryCountLines(subdirectory); } return lineCount; } private static int CountLines(string file) { int lineCount = 0; string line; FileStream stream = new FileStream(file, FileModeOpen); StreamReader reader = new StreamReader(stream); line = readerReadLine(); while(line != null) { if (lineTrim() == "") { lineCount++; } line = readerReadLine(); } readerClose(); streamClose(); return lineCount; } }
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Output 410
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>LineCounterexe \ *cs 28
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The effect of method overloading is to provide optional ways to call the method As demonstrated inside Main(), you can call the DirectoryCountLines() method with or without passing the directory to
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search and the file extension Notice that the parameterless implementation of DirectoryCountLines() was changed to call the single-parameter version (int DirectoryCountLines(string directory)) This is a common pattern when implementing overloaded methods The idea is that developers implement only the core logic in one method and all the other overloaded methods will call that single method If the core implementation changes, it needs to be modified in only one location rather than within each implementation This pattern is especially prevalent when using method overloading to enable optional parameters
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