Figure 5-13 The role of Web services with NET Enterprise Services in Visual Studio .NET

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Figure 5-13 The role of Web services with NET Enterprise Services
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Overview
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Contrary to the networking options that were discussed earlier in this chapter, Web services are platform independent, whereas DCOM and NET remoting are Microsoft-specific technologies Although NET remoting offers SOAP as a protocol, with NET remoting, NET applications are required on both the client and the server In contrast, if you create a Web service, you can use a different platform to write the client application Web services are based on standards such as SOAP, WSDL, and UDDI: [22] SOAP SOAP is the definition of XML-based information that can be used to exchange documents between different systems A client sends a SOAP message to the server, and the server replies with a SOAP message to the client The SOAP message consists of a SOAP envelope that contains an optional header and a body Inside the header, context information may be passed The body usually contains information about the methods that are to be invoked with the service together with the data that is passed WSDL (Web Services Description Language) WSDL defines a contract for Web services Contrary to interfaces, which are method-based contracts, WSDL is a message- and interface-based contract WSDL does not define all contracts for Web [23] services; there can be more, such as policy contracts WSDL consists of message definitions or links to message definitions based on XML schemas Those message definitions form the business documents that will be exchanged using SOAP The contract that is used with COM components is the type library It lists the interfaces and methods of a COM component This is very similar to the metadata of a NET assembly Both of these contracts are object oriented, whereas the WSDL
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contract is a message-based contract in an XML format UDDI (Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration) A UDDI server can be used to search for Web services that implement some specific functionality Web services that are publicly available are listed at http://wwwuddiorg, which is a public UDDI server You can also set up your own UDDI server if the Web services should only be available within the enterprise, or for partners Windows Server 2003 includes a UDDI server that just needs to be configured You can use the UDDI server to search for a specific functionality that is implemented by a Web service, but you can also use it for failover The client can ask the UDDI server for the binding information to a specific Web service When the Web service is not available anymore, the client queries the UDDI server again for alternative binding information
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Implementing a Web Service with ASPNET
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Looking into the generated source file, you can see one thing immediately: If you create an ASPNET Web service project using Visual Studio, you can easily implement Web services by applying the attribute [WebMethod] to public methods This attribute is used by the ASPNET runtime to offer the method via the SOAP protocol, and a description of the Web service in the form of a WSDL document is created In the next example, the serviced component CourseManagement is slightly modified so that you can see how an array of custom objects can be returned from the serviced component, and then this information is passed from the Web service to the client application To make this happen, the method GetCourses is added to the class CourseManagement (see Listing 5-11) This method just creates an array of CourseInfo objects and returns it to the caller In the sample implementation, the argumentcategoryId is ignored and three courses are returned anyway
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Listing 5-11 GetCourses Method
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public CourseInfo[] GetCourses(string categoryId) { CourseInfo[] courses = new CourseInfo[3]; courses[0] = new CourseInfo( "MS-2524", "ASPNET Web Services", 5, new DateTime(2005, 8, 8)); courses[1] = new CourseInfo( "MS-2555", "Windows Forms", 5, new DateTime(2005, 9, 5)); courses[2] = new CourseInfo( "MS-2557", "Enterprise Services", 5, new DateTime(2005, 10, 3)); return courses; }
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The client application of the serviced component now is a Web service You can create a Web service by using the ASPNET Web Service Project Wizard With the samples, the Web service has the name CourseServices With Web services, be aware that the types defined with XML schemas are not the same types used with the serviced components With the serviced components, some entity classes such as CourseInfo were created With NET remoting, these classes were used both on the client and on the server systems, because with NET remoting, you usually have the same assemblies on the client and on server systems This also requires that both the client and the server must be written with NET technologies With Web services, however, you
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are technology independent Web services are also a better boundary to decouple the client from the back-end infrastructure and thus add an additional trust boundary To use such a behavior, you should also have special classes that define the messages passed from the Web service to the client, and vice versa To demonstrate a Web service method that is invoked by the client application and returns an array of courses back to the client, you must create classes that represent the messages You can see the classes Course and CourseDate in Listing 5-12, which includes public fields that represent the data that is sent An internal constructor is used to convert an instance from the entity classes to the classes that represent the messages Furthermore, note that with this class, XML attributes are used to influence the generated XML schema You can use attribute classes such as XmlElement-Attribute and XmlAttributeAttribute to define XML elements and XML attributes and specify different names that should be used within XML You can also change the XML namespace that is used within the schema, which you can set with the attribute [XmlType] With this XML namespace, I always include a year, and possibly a month, so that newer versions can be easily differentiated To plan for the future, the attribute [XmlAnyElement] is used to define any optional types If new fields are added with future versions of this class, the current contract is fine because any XML element is allowed The XML attribute classes are defined within the namespace SystemXmlSerialization The classes GetCoursesRequest and GetCoursesResponse directly define the messages sent from and to the clientGetCoursesRequest has just one field, CategoryId GetCoursesResponse includes an array of Course elements To define the XML representation of arrays, use the attributes [XmlArray] and [XmlArrayItem] You can also use these attributes to convert anArrayList to a normal array with XML serialization
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