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One Microsoft goal with COM technologies was that Visual Basic developers should not have to deal with synchronization issues; programming should be easier This was the major reason why apartments were invented The reason why apartments are introduced here is because you have to know the concepts and issues when integrating with COM objects With a pure NET solution, just the COM+ 15 concept of activities is important
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If you write pure NET applications and you do not interact with existing COM objects, you can skip the next few sections and continue to read at the section "NET Enterprise Services Interaction" If you are interested in what the apartment options in the serviced component configuration are about, you should read the next sections anyway
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With the first release of COM, all COM objects running inside one process were accessed by just a single thread Accessing the object from a different thread automatically meant calling the object by using a proxy that switched to the thread that allowed accessing the object Soon this led to scalability problem; therefore, with Windows NT 351, apartments were invented An apartment is used to intercept a method call by the COM runtime to synchronize access to an object A COM component describes the apartment it wants to live in by using a registry configuration entry Depending on the apartment, access to the object may or may not be synchronized Do you detect similar ideas with the contexts discussed in 2 Indeed, you can compare apartments with contexts: Similar to contexts, with apartments, interception happens by invoking some services code before the method call is started The similarities go even further: Before the term apartment was used, the name wascontext With COM, three different apartment types are available:
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Single-threaded apartments Multithreaded apartments Thread-neutral apartments
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Within a NET application, the apartment where the thread is running can be read with the ApartmentState property of the Thread class The ApartmentState property returns an ApartmentState enumeration that can have the valuesSTA, MTA, and Unknown
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Single-Threaded Apartments
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The single-threaded apartment (STA) was created with Windows NT 351 Only a single thread may run inside an STA, so in many
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cases, writing of locking code for synchronized access is not necessary However, inside a single process, multiple apartments can coexist; so if objects running inside different apartments access some shared state, it is necessary to synchronize access to this shared state Figure 3-2 shows a process with two STAs Objects A and B are running in the first STA and may only be accessed from thread 1 Objects C and D are running in the second STA and may only be accessed from thread 2 If object A is used within a method of object C, a proxy must be used to access object A from STA 2 This proxy forwards the method call to thread 1 so that thread 1 can do synchronized access to object A
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Figure 3-2 Single-threaded apartments
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If an object is used from a different apartment from the calling object, in general you do not have to take care that a proxy is used for accessing the object If the object is accessed by using COM interfaces, crossing apartments is automatically done by the COM runtime A thread creates an STA apartment by invoking the COM API call CoInitialize With NET, a thread can also create an STA apartment by [2] using the attribute [STAThread] If you use Visual Studio NET 2003 to create your applications, the attribute [STAThread] is applied by default to all Main methods, so the main thread of the application will create an STA COM objects that are created by this thread and that want to live in an STA can be accessed without crossing the apartment A COM object defines that it wants to live in an STA with the registry entry ThreadingModel=Apartment Instead of using the attribute [STAThread] with the new thread, you can associate the thread to an apartment by setting theThread property ApartmentState to ApartmentStateSTA before starting the thread By crossing the apartment with a method, you always lose some performance, because leaving and entering an STA always invokes a thread switch
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