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comment before it:
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#ifndef variable #endif
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The reason is that some C++ implementations detect files that have this form and, if the variable is defined, do not even bother to read the file the second time around
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44 Partitioning the grading program
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Now that we know how to arrange to compile the median function separately, the next step is to package our Student_info structure and associated functions:
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#ifndef GUARD_Student_info #define GUARD_Student_info // Student_infoh header file #include <iostream> #include <string> #include <vector> struct Student_info { std::string name; double midterm, final; std::vector<double> homework; }; bool compare(const Student_info std::istream std::istream double> #endif
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Notice that we explicitly use std:: to qualify names from the standard library, rather than including using-declarations, and that Student_infoh declares the compare, read, and read_hw functions, which are closely associated with the Student_info structure We will use these functions only if we are also using this structure, so it makes sense to package these functions with the structure definition The functions should be defined in a source file that will look something like:
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// source file for Student_info-related functions #include "Student_infoh" using std::istream; using std::vector;
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bool compare(const Student_info { return xname < yname; } istream { // read and store the student's name and midterm and final exam grades is >> sname >> smidterm >> sfinal; read_hw(is, shomework); return is; } // read homework grades from an input stream into a `vector' istream double> { if (in) { // get rid of previous contents hwclear(); // read homework grades double x; while (in >> x) hwpush_back(x); // read and store all the student's homework grades
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This document is created with the unregistered version of CHM2PDF Pilot // clear the stream so that input will work for the next student inclear(); } return in; }
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Note that because we include the Student_infoh file, this file contains both declarations and definitions of our functions This redundancy is harmless, and is actually a good idea It gives the compiler the opportunity to check for consistency between the declarations and the definitions These checks are not exhaustive in most implementations, because complete checking requires seeing the entire program, but they are useful enough to make it worthwhile for source files to include the corresponding header files The checking and its incompleteness stem from a common source: The language requires function declarations and definitions to match exactly in their result type, and in the number and types of parameters This rule explains the implementation's ability to check but why the incompleteness The reason is that if a declaration and definition differ enough, the implementation can only assume that they describe two different versions of an overloaded function, and that the missing definition will appear elsewhere For example, suppose we defined median as in 411/53, and we declared it incorrectly as
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int median (std::vector<double>); // return type should be double
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If the compiler sees this declaration when it compiles the definition, it will complain, because it knows that the return type of median(vector<double>) cannot simultaneously be double and int Suppose, however, that instead we had declared
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double median (double); // argument type should be vector<double>
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Now the compiler can't complain, because median(double) could be defined elsewhere If we call the function, then the implementation must eventually look for its definition If it doesn't find the definition, it will complain at that point Note, too, that in the source file, there is no problem with using-declarations Unlike a header file, a source file has no effect on the programs that use these functions Hence reliance on using-declarations in a source file is purely a local decision What's left is to write a header file to declare the various overloaded grade functions:
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#ifndef GUARD_grade_h #define GUARD_grade_h // gradeh #include <vector> #include "Student_infoh" double grade(double, double, double); double grade(double, double, const std::vector<double> double grade(const Student_info #endif
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Notice how bringing the declarations of these overloaded functions together makes it easier to see all the alternatives We will define all three functions in a single file, because they are closely related Again, the name of the file will depend on the implementation, but will probably be gradecpp, gradeC, or gradec:
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