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Returns an output iterator that inserts values into c starting immediately before the position denoted by it Declared in <iterator> back_inserter(c) Returns an output iterator that can append new values to the end of c by calling cpush_back Declared in <iterator>
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B23 Additional sequential operations
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Some operations are supported only on those containers for which the operations can be done efficiently These include the following: c[n] A reference to the nth element of c, where the initial element has position 0 The reference is const if c is const, and nonconst otherwise Undefined if n is out of range Valid only for vector and string cpush_front(t) Inserts a copy of t at the beginning of c, increasing the size of c by one Returns void Not valid for string or vector cpop_front() Removes the first element from c Returns void Undefined if c is empty Valid only for list front_inserter(c) Returns an output iterator that can insert new values at the front of c by calling cpush_front Declared in <iterator>
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Associative containers are optimized for fast access based on a key In addition to the general container operations outlined in 1321/314, associative containers also provide the following: container<T>::key_type The type of the container's key An associative container with keys of type K and elements of type V has a value_type of pair<const K, V>, not V container<T> c(cmp); Defines c as an empty associative container that uses the predicate cmp to order the elements container c(b, e, cmp); Defines c as an associative container, initialized with a copy of the values in the sequence denoted by the input iterators b and e, that uses cmp to order the elements cinsert(b, e) Inserts elements into c from the sequence denoted by the input iterators b and e The map container inserts only those elements whose keys are not already in c cerase(it) Removes the element denoted by the iterator it from c Returns void cerase(b, e) Removes elements in the range [b, e) from c Returns void cerase(k) Removes all elements with key k from c Returns the number removed
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cfind(k) Returns an iterator referring to the element with key equal to k Returns cend() if no such element exists
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The standard library relies heavily on iterators to make its algorithms data-structure independent Iterators are an abstraction of pointers, in that they provide operations that allow access to container elements analogous to what pointers allow on array elements The standard algorithms are written to assume that iterators meet requirements that the library classifies into iterator categories Every library algorithm that uses iterators of a particular category can work with every library- or user-defined class that provides iterators that fall into that category Output: It is possible to use the iterator to advance through the container one element at a time, and to write each element visited once and only once Example: Class ostream_iterator is an output iterator; and the copy algorithm requires only the output-iterator properties for its third argument Input: It is possible to use the iterator to advance through the container one element at a time, and to read each element as often as needed before advancing to the next element Example: Class istream_iterator is an input iterator, and the copy algorithm requires only input-iterator properties for its first two arguments Forward: It is possible to use the iterator to advance through the container one element at a time, to revisit elements to which previously remembered iterators refer, and to read or write each element as often as needed Example: replace is an algorithm that requires forward-iterator properties Bidirectional: It is possible to use the iterator to move through the container one element at a time, either forward or backward Example: list and map provide bidirectional iterators, and reverse is an algorithm that requires bidirectional iterators Random access: It is possible to move through the container using all the operations supported by pointers Example: vector, string, and built-in arrays support random-access iterators The sort algorithm requires random-access iterators All iterator categories support testing for (in)equality Random-access iterators support all the relational operations Iterator categories can be thought of as cumulative, in the sense that every forward iterator is also an input iterator and an output iterator, every bidirectional iterator is also a forward iterator, and every random-access iterator is also a bidirectional iterator Thus, any algorithm that accepts any iterator type as an argument will accept a random-access iterator Class ostream_iterator and the insert iterator adaptors provide output iterators, and thus can be used only by algorithms that require only output-iterator operations All iterators support the following operations: ++p p++ Advances p to the next position in the container ++p returns p as an lvalue after advancing it; p++ returns a copy of p's previous value *p The element to which p refers For output iterators, *p may be used only as the left operand of =, and each distinct value of p may be used in this way only once For input iterators, *p may be used only for reading; and the act of incrementing p invalidates all copies that might have been made of p's previous value For all other iterator types, *p yields a reference to the value stored in the container element to which p refers, and p remains valid as long as the element to which p refers continues to exist p == p2 Yields true if p is equal to p2; false otherwise p != p2
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