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161 Use the abstractions you have
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There is an old story about a visitor who has become lost in New York, with tickets in hand to a piano recital Stopping a passerby, the visitor asks, "Excuse me Can you tell me how to get to Carnegie Hall " The answer: "Practice!" It is important to understand thoroughly how to use the abstractions that you have available before you try to learn about new ones The abstractions that you have include the ones from the standard library, and others that you may have had to create as you solve programming problems By combining ideas from the standard library, which we can apply to a wide variety of problems, with ideas that solve problems in a particular application domain, we can write useful programs with surprisingly little effort In particular, if we design our own abstractions well, we should be able to use them to solve problems that we had not considered when we designed them We can find an example of this ideal in the classes that we wrote in 13 to store student grades and in 15 to generate character pictures We have used the character-picture classes in a variety of forms for years In contrast, we wrote the student-record classes from scratch for this book Only when we were thinking about what to say in this chapter did we realize that we could combine these two abstractions in a particularly nice way The combination uses character pictures to write a histogram of students' grades The point, of course, is that such a visual display lets us see anomalies much more quickly than does a mere table of numbers The basic idea is to convert each final grade into a string of = symbols whose length is proportional to the grade For example, with appropriate input, we might generate the following output:
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******************************** * * * James =============== * * Kevin ================ * * Lynn ================= * * MaryKate ================ * * Pat ============ * * Paul ================== * * Rhia ================ * * Sarah =================== * * * ********************************
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From this histogram, it is immediately obvious that Pat is having trouble keeping up with the course What is nice about this example is how small it is, and how directly the solution mirrors the problem:
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Picture histogram(const vector<Student_info>& students) { Picture names; Picture grades; // for each student for (vector<Student_info>::const_iterator it = studentsbegin(); it != studentsend(); ++it) { // create vertically concatenated pictures of the names and grades names = vcat(names, vector<string>(1, it->name())); grades = vcat(grades, vector<string>(1, " " + string(it->grade() / 5, '='))); } // horizontally concatenate the name and grade pictures to combine them return hcat(names, grades);
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Our histogram function takes a (const reference to a) vector of Student_info objects, each of which represents a student From these records, we will create two Pictures, one of which, names, contains all the students' names; the other, grades, contains a row that corresponds to each student's final grade When we've processed every student, we horizontally concatenate the two pictures, lining up each student with the corresponding grade Because each picture is conceptually a rectangle, this horizontal concatenation automatically accounts for the different lengths of the students' names The main program builds up the vector, in familiar fashion, by reading a file of student records When it's done, it calls histogram to generate the Picture, frames it, and then uses the output operator to write it:
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int main() { vector<Student_info> students; Student_info s; // read the names and grades while (sread(cin)) studentspush_back(s); // put the students in alphabetical order sort(studentsbegin(), studentsend(), Student_info::compare); // write the names and histograms cout << frame(histogram(students)) << endl; return 0; }
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The most important new idea in this example is that it contains no new ideas! What made it easy was being so familiar with the ideas that we have already covered that we can combine them in ways that we had not anticipated This kind of familiarity comes only with practice
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