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Until now, we have been storing data either in variables or in containers, such as vector, that come from the standard library The reason for this strategy is that the standard- library facilities are usually more flexible and easier to use than the facilities that are part of the core language Once you know how to use the library, the logical next step is to understand how it works The key to this understanding turns out to involve core-language programming tools and techniques that come in handy in other contexts as well We use the term low- level to refer to these ideas because they underlie the standard library and because they correspond closely to the way typical computer hardware works For these reasons, they tend to be harder to use, and are more dangerous, but they sometimes can be more efficient provided that you understand them thoroughly than are the related ideas in the standard library Because no library can solve all problems, many C++ programs wind up using low-level techniques from time to time This chapter departs from our usual style of presenting problems before their solutions, because the tools that we are going to present work at a low enough level that it is hard to use any one tool by itself to solve useful problems Instead, we are going to begin by presenting two related ideas: arrays and pointers Once we have done so, we'll show how those ideas combine with new-expressions and delete-expressions to allow a form of dynamic memory allocation that programmers can control more directly than they can control the automatic memory management offered by library classes such as vector and list Once we understand how arrays and pointers work, we will explore, in 11, how the library uses these facilities to implement its containers
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An array is a kind of container, similar to a vector but less powerful A pointer is a kind of random-access iterator that is essential for accessing elements of arrays, and has other uses as well Pointers and arrays are among the most primitive data structures in C and C++ They are virtually inseparable from one another, in the sense that it is impossible to do anything useful with an array without using pointers, and pointers become much more useful in the presence of arrays Because these two notions are so closely intertwined, we shall explain them both before trying to solve significant problems with either It is easier to explain pointers without understanding arrays than to explain arrays without understanding pointers, so we shall discuss pointers first
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A pointer is a value that represents the address of an object Every distinct object has a unique address, which denotes the part of the computer's memory that contains the object If you can access an object, you can obtain its address, and vice versa For example, if x is an object, then &x is the address of that object, and if p is the address of an object, then *p is the object itself The & in &x is an address operator, and is distinct from the use of & to define reference types ( 412/54) The * is a dereference operator, which works analogously to the way * works when applied to any other iterator ( 522/81) If p contains the address of x, we also say that p is a pointer that points to x It is common to represent such a state of affairs with a diagram such as
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As with other built-in types, a local variable that is a pointer has no meaningful value until we give it one Programmers frequently use the value 0 to initialize pointers, because converting 0 to a pointer yields a value that is guaranteed to be distinct from a pointer to any object Moreover, the constant 0 is the only integer value that can be converted to a pointer type The resulting value, often called a null pointer, is often useful in comparisons As with all C++ values, pointers have types The address of an object of type T has type "pointer to T," written as T* in definitions and similar contexts Suppose that x is an object of type int, defined as
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and we want to define p to have a type that will allow p to contain the address of x We do so by saying that the type of p is "pointer to int," which we say implicitly by defining *p to have type int:
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